Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in children <5 years of age. They occur in 2-5% of children, but the incidence has been reported as high as 14% in certain populations. This has been attributed to higher rates of consanguinity. However, racial and geographic variations may also be important. Most febrile seizures are brief, do not require any specific treatment or workup, and have benign prognoses. Generalists and pediatricians are frequently faced with anxious parents and are required to make rational decisions regarding the workup and management of these children. Physicians are subsequently required to provide counseling and information about the prognoses to the involved families. The aim of this chapter is to provide an updated overview of febrile seizures and review the most recent diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations.
Keywords: Seizure, Epilepsy, Fever, Typical, Atypical, Meningitis, Encephalitis, EEG, MRI, Dravet syndrome, Febrile plus syndrome.