In this concluding Chapter we discuss the importance of several basic steps that can optimize the outcome of a citrus IPM program. In particular, we treat the need for stricter quarantine services and determining the Economic Injury Level (EIL) and Action Threshold (AT) for each pest. We emphasize the need to know more about the direct and indirect effects of the various citrus hosts on the pests and on their natural enemies, about the indirect effects of soil conditions and horticultural practices on pests and their enemies, quantitative estimates of the impact of the natural enemies (or any other IPM program) on pest numbers and (even more important) on yield quantity and quality. We also advocate initiating further in-depth studies on the use of indigenous natural enemies, exploring interactions between suites, or guilds, of natural enemies, and a far more extensive application of molecular tools, all of which could provide support for tracking the results of IPM projects. Finally, we suggest the setting up of a centralized database about citrus pests and their natural enemies in the Mediterranean Region.