Four species of moths are harmful to citrus in the Mediterranean Region. They are assigned to the families Gracillariidae (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton), Yponomeutidae (Prays citri Milliere) and Pyralidae [Cryptoblabes gnidiella Milliere and Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)]. The first two are direct pests, whereas the others inhabit and damage citrus only when attracted there by mealybug honeydew. A key to the identification of the three families and to the larval stages of the 4 species are provided. Diagnostic characters, life history data, economic damage and management recommendations are provided for each species.