Eleven Thysanoptera (thrips) species, all included in the family Thripidae, are listed as pests on citrus in the Mediterranean region, and a diagnostic dichotomic key is provided for them. For each species the main morphological characters, biological features and data on the economic importance are reported. Amongst them, five species i.e. Chaetanaphothrips signipennis Bagnall, Frankliniella bispinosa Morgan, Scirtothrips aurantii Faure, S. citri (Moulton) and S. dorsalis Hood are quarantine species that are not yet present in the Mediterranean countries; however, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche), Pezothrips kellyanus Bagnall, Thrips flavus Schrank and T. tabaci Lindeman are common pests on citrus. Data on pest activity due to F. occidentalis (Pergande) are not yet known, whereas literature reports on its spread onto new hosts, have only very recently become available from a few Mediterranean countries.