Fundamentals of Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cloning and Expression Vectors

Author(s): Zain Ul Abedien* and Rai Shafqat Ali

Pp: 71-81 (11)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815238037124010008

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Cloning and expression vectors are essential tools in molecular biology that enable researchers to manipulate and study genes and proteins. Cloning vectors are DNA molecules that can carry foreign DNA fragments and introduce them into host cells. Expression vectors are specialized cloning vectors designed to drive the expression of foreign genes in a host cell, allowing researchers to produce large quantities of recombinant proteins. The most commonly used cloning vectors are plasmids; circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently of the host chromosome. Plasmids can be engineered to contain various features such as selectable markers, multiple cloning sites, and regulatory sequences. These features make plasmids versatile application tools, including gene cloning, mutagenesis, and genetic engineering. Expression vectors are typically based on plasmids and contain additional elements that enable the efficient expression of the foreign gene. These elements include a strong promoter, a ribosome binding site, and a transcription terminator, which work together to ensure the production of the recombinant protein. The choice of expression vector depends on the desired protein expression level, the host cell type, and downstream applications. The use of cloning and expression vectors has revolutionized the field of molecular biology, enabling the production of recombinant proteins, genetic engineering of organisms, and gene therapy. However, using these tools requires careful consideration of potential risks, such as unintended genetic modifications or the spread of genetically modified organisms.

Keywords: Complementary DNA, Expression vector, Molecular cloning, Oligonucleotide sequence, Restriction enzyme.

Related Journals
Related Books
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy