Fundamentals of Cellular and Molecular Biology

Restriction Enzymes

Author(s): Zain Ul Abedien *

Pp: 62-70 (9)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815238037124010007

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that cleave DNA at specific recognition sequences, usually consisting of four to eight base pairs. These enzymes have become invaluable tools in molecular biology, enabling scientists to manipulate and analyze DNA in various ways. Restriction enzymes are used in various applications, including gene cloning, DNA fingerprinting, and genome mapping. By cleaving DNA at specific sites, restriction enzymes can generate DNA fragments with defined ends, which can then be ligated into vectors for cloning or PCR amplification. Using restriction enzymes in conjunction with gel electrophoresis allows for the separation and analysis of DNA fragments based on their size. There are over 3,000 known restriction enzymes, each with its unique recognition sequence. Many of these enzymes have been isolated from bacteria and are named after the bacterial species from which they were derived. Some restriction enzymes have also been engineered to recognize new recognition sequences, expanding their usefulness in molecular biology. The discovery and development of restriction enzymes have revolutionized molecular biology, allowing scientists to manipulate and analyze DNA in previously impossible ways. As our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these enzymes continues to grow, they will likely play a critical role in genetics and biotechnology. 


Keywords: Biotechnology, Bacterial enzymes, DNA cleavage, DNA fingerprinting, Gene cloning, Genome mapping, Molecular biology, Restriction enzymes, Recognition sequences, Vectors.

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