Fundamentals of Cellular and Molecular Biology

Mutation and DNA Repairs

Author(s): Shumaila Yousaf* and Saba Nasir

Pp: 49-61 (13)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815238037124010006

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence that can occur spontaneously or due to exposure to mutagenic agents such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. These changes can have a wide range of effects on the organism, from no effect at all to causing genetic disorders or cancer. DNA repair mechanisms exist to correct these mutations, ensuring the integrity of the genetic material. There are several types of DNA repair mechanisms, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and mismatch repair, each designed to correct different types of DNA damage. The repair mechanisms are highly regulated and involve a complex network of proteins that detect, remove, and replace damaged DNA. Defects in DNA repair mechanisms can lead to an accumulation of mutations, increasing the risk of cancer and other diseases. For example, individuals with inherited mutations in DNA repair genes have a higher risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as breast and ovarian cancer.

Keywords: Chromosomal aberration, E. coli, Gene pool, Genetic material, Genetic variability, Nucleotide.

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