Industrial Applications of Soil Microbes

Volume: 2

Macrophomina Phaseolina: An Agriculturally Destructive Soil Microbe

Author(s): Ramesh Nath Gupta*, Kishor Chand Kumhar and J.N. Srivastava

Pp: 203-218 (16)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815050264123020015

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is a destructive fungal soil microbe, a cause of charcoal rot disease and causes heavy losses in agricultural production. It is non-specific and appears in moderate to severe form every year worldwide. Due to the seriousness and economic importance of the pathogen as well as disease, it requires multiple approaches like epidemiological study, induction of systemic resistance through non-conventional chemicals, host-pathogen resistance and chemical as well as phytoextract application for its management. Epidemiological studies reveal that the onset of charcoal rot varied in different varieties during different dates of sowing. Timely sowing of crops is an important tool for reducing disease incidence. The intensity of disease in a timely sown crop is less, with higher production and productivity. The non-conventional chemicals like salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, indole acetic acid, indole butyric acid, riboflavin, and thiamine induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and effectively inhibit mycelial growth of the pathogen. These non-conventional chemicals showed a reduction of charcoal rot disease under field conditions. It also enhances the yield-attributing traits and yield. It induces total phenol content, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and catalase activity by the treatment of these chemicals. These activities showed a differential reaction after inoculation of the pathogen on different varieties. However, resistant varieties showed higher induction of biochemical activities than susceptible ones. Different phytoextracts showed inhibition of mycelial growth and a reduction of disease incidence in different crops. Seed treatment with fungicides is an effective method for controlling the pathogen and ultimately enhances the production of the crop. Genotype evaluation for host resistance is an effective, economical, and continuous way of managing the pathogen and disease. 

Keywords: Macrophomina phaseolina, Soil microbes, Charcoal rot, Induction, Disease management.

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