Materials Science: A Field of Diverse Industrial Applications

Commercial Applications of Synthetic Fibres

Author(s): Sunanda Das *

Pp: 63-94 (32)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815051247123010006

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Man-made fibres are produced from chemical substances known as synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre or a synthetic polymer made from molecules of monomer joined together to form long chains, is also known as an artificial fibre. Besides polymerbased synthetic fibres, other types of fibres that have special commercial applications and importance. These include the fibers made of carbon, glass,metal and ceramics. Polymer-based synthetic fibres are produced by various processes such as melt spinning, dry spinning and wet spinning.
The melt spinning technique is used to produce polymers such as polyethene, polyetheneterephthalate, cellulose triacetate, polyvinyl chloride, nylon, etc. Cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate, acrylic, modacrylic, polyvinyl chloride and aromatic nylon are artificial fibres manufactured by dry-spinning. In contrast, the wet spinning process is used for aromatic nylon, polyvinyl chloride fibres, acrylic, modacrylic and viscose rayon from regenerated cellulose.
The importance and usefulness of synthetic fibres are because they have enhanced properties compared to natural fibres, which come from plants or animals. Still, each type is valued for different reasons.

Keywords: Artificial fibres, Commercial applications, Polymers, Polyesters, Polyolefins, Polyamides, Polyurethane, Rayons, Synthetic fibres.

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