Infected mosquitoes of Aedes species spread Chikungunya fever upon the
biting of the mosquitoes. Chikungunya fever first came to the limelight upon an
outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. These days almost all countries in the world are
reporting Chikungunya fever. There is no vaccine for the Chikungunya virus. The
infection causes severe joint pain, nausea, vomiting, conductivities, headache, and
muscle pain, followed by fever. Clinical manifestations occur after 2-7 days of the
mosquito bite. This chapter addresses key issues on Chikungunya viral infection in
brain cells with reference to the triggering of events associated with toll-like receptors.