Extremophiles: Diversity, Adaptation and Applications


Author(s): Mazharul Abbasi *

Pp: 64-104 (41)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815080353122010007

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Psychrophiles can be defined as the members of the kingdom Monera thriving permanently at the lowest temperature range. Since the majority of our planet is generally cold, psychrophiles are common within a wide range of habitats. Extensive research in the field of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics revealed that psychrophiles are endowed with several adaptive features to survive and grow in their cold habitat. Several adaptations in different cellular entities, such as cell envelopes, enzymes, chaperones; protein synthesis machinery, energy generating system, and metabolic pathways have been reported. All these modifications in psychrophiles are found to be indispensable to withstand these harsh environmental challenges. The chapter focuses on the current state of knowledge for understanding the biodiversity and mechanism of low-temperature adaptation of psychrophilic microorganisms. Furthermore, the modified biomolecules in psychrophiles, mainly enzymes and reserved materials, with distinct features, were found to be useful for several applications including molecular biology research, bioremediation, detergent formulations, and the food industry. The biotechnological and industrial significance of the psychrophiles is also discussed in this chapter. 

Keywords: Application of psychrophiles, Biodiversity, Cold temperature adaptation, Extremophiles, Psychrophiles.

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