The Polyandrous Queen Honey Bee: Biology and Apiculture

Mandibular Pheromone Types, Functions, Synthesis, And Associated Genetic Elements In The Queen Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

Author(s): Lovleen Marwaha

Pp: 138-162 (25)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815079128112010008

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Queen Mandibular Pheromones (QMP) include (E)-9-oxo-2-decanoic acid(9-ODA), (R)-and (S)-(E)-9-hydroxy-2-decanoic acid(9-HDA), methyl 4- hydroxybenzoate(HOB), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), 4-hydroxy- -methoxyphenyl ethanol (HVA), and10-hydroxy-2 (E)-decanoic acid (10-HDA), whereas worker honey bees mandibular gland pheromones include mainly 10-hydrox- -2 (E)-decanoic acid (10-HDA),10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA), and 2- mainly 2-heptanone (2-H), traces of 9-hydroxy-2 (E)-decanoic acid (9-HDA) and 9-ODA. Biochemical modifications of stearic acid occur through hydroxylation of stearic acid at ω or ω-1 positions in worker honey bee and queen, synthesizing the primary pheromones listed above. 9-ODA pheromone influences alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression, and the specific enzyme is essential for converting 9-HDA to 9-ODA in worker honey bees. Further, the differential synthesis process is influenced by the gene expression of various cytochromes. QMPs impose differential influence on various developmental, functional, and behavioural regulations on nest mates, which include retinue behaviour, suppression of the development of worker honey bee ovaries, wax secretion, drone attraction, swarming, queen dominance regulation, general regulation, mating, and reproduction, juvenile hormone secretion in workers, foraging behaviour and the different submissive response of workers in the presence of the queen. 

Keywords: Differential secretion, Genetic elements, Mandibular gland, Pheromones.

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