Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder that results in cognitive defects. The disease is a progressive, age-associated, irreversible, neurodegenerative disease with severe memory loss, personality changes, unusual behavior and impairment in cognitive function. There is no cure for AD, and the drugs available for the treatment of the disease have limited efficacy. Medicine develops from the extract of medicinal plants have been the single most productive and common source for the development of drugs, and also, more than thousands of new products are already in clinical study. Different types of therapeutic strategies like herbal and synthetic approaches are being used against AD on the basis of understanding AD mechanisms. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is the most effective and highly investigated, herbal medicine for AD and other cognitive disorders. One of the famous dietary supplements is GBE, consumed by the elderly population to improve memory and age-related loss of cognitive function. The exact mechanism of action of Ginkgo extract in AD is still not very clear. The phytochemical studies of the different plant parts of the G. biloba have revealed the presence of many valuable secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids that shows a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities like anti-amyloidogenic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. This book chapter gathers research on the G. biloba plant and its neuroprotective and phytochemical effects, which are used against AD. The summarized information concern pharmacological activities, neuroprotective effect, and biological and clinical applications of the Ginkgo plant.