Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Approaches in Biomedical Engineering and Health Care Systems

Early Diabetic Retinopathy Detection Using Elevated Continuous Particle Swarm Optimization Clustering With Raspberry PI

Author(s): Bhimavarapu Usharani *

Pp: 15-33 (19)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681089553122010005

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Diabetic retinopathy is a disease in an eye caused due to the diabetic condition present in the person, resulting in blindness. Early diagnosis of the disease prevents the progression of blindness. Microaneurysms are the significant symptoms of the early detection of diabetic retinopathy and are initiated by dilating the thin blood vessels. Microaneurysms are red lesions, which may be round and sometimes irregular in shape. Generally, microaneurysms appear near the macula or close to the blood vessel. The present study concentrates on detecting microaneurysms to detect diabetic retinopathy in the early stage. This chapter utilizes the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to effectively segment the microaneurysms. The segmented microaneurysm is analyzed using the measures of Entropy, Skewness, and Kurtosis. The elevated PSO clustering gives high performance irrespective of image contrast. The elevated continuous PSO clustering successfully detects microaneurysms and helps diagnose diabetic retinopathy in the early stage in an efficient way. This work uses digital image processing techniques and mainly concentrates on the effective detection of microaneurysms. The results proved that the proposed approach improves performance in the early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Microaneurysms, Particle Swarm Optimization, PSO Clustering, Raspberry PI, etc.

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