Textile configurations are derived from two major sources such as ancient handicraft and modern scientific inventions. Textile fabrication using polymeric fiber is one of the fastest-growing sectors since the 19th century and is currently the secondlargest manufacturing industry after information technology. Although polymers are predominantly used in the development of dosage forms, however recent devolvement in natural polymer chemistry reflects its association with the production of plastics, fibers, elastomers, etc. Innovation using natural polymer fibers-based textile could serve as an alternative capable of replacing synthetic polymer-based fibers. Polymers, especially fibers contribute significantly to the manufacturing of textiles. Moreover, copolymerization of fabrics fibers with excipients demonstrated potential for the development of materials useful in various biomedical applications. Furthermore, to understand the fundamental characteristics of polymeric fibers including structural composition, morphological features such as crystallinity, and orientation, a comprehensive skill is necessary. This chapter discusses the basic materials used in the fabrication of textile products, with emphasizes on bio-based polymers as an alternative to synthetic polymers in the production of fabrics.