The success of an active pharmaceutical depends on how efficiently and precisely the polymeric dosage form can deliver it for effective treatment. Polymers are recognized as inactive pharmaceutical excipients and the backbone of the drug delivery system that plays an essential role in the design of dosage forms. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery system has gained significant attention among researchers and manufacturers in the last few decades, compared to synthetic non-biodegradable and their analog polymers. Synthetic biodegradable biopolymers demonstrate excellent efficacy in the design and development of drug delivery that enables the incorporation of active pharmaceuticals into the body. Despite the wide effectiveness of currently available polymers in the design of drug delivery systems, the quest for biocompatible, biodegradable, and easily accessible novel polymers with multifarious applications is still protractile. Due to safety and regulatory approval requirements in the development of novel inactive pharmaceuticals, the introduction of new excipients is much limited. However, the development of bio-based polymers with modification as required could be a valuable way to address the problem associated with synthetic polymers. In this chapter, an overview has been presented on the various applications of bio-based polymers ranging from oral conventional drug delivery to reduction and capping of metallic materials. Moreover, details are presented on the technology-based use of biopolymers in the fabrication of modified oral drug delivery, microneedles, packaging film, and biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.