The COVID-19 pandemic has created a very difficult time for the whole
world with utmost challenge and responsibility on the public health sector to provide
symptomatic relief and timely treatment. This condition has stimulated immediate
research on the mode of transmission and pathogenesis of the viral variants. As the
composition of SARS CoV-2 is similar to SARS-CoV by more than 50%, therefore the
management of COVID-19 can possibly be done by repurposing the existing drugs
used to treat SARS-CoV infection. The management of SARS CoV-2 infection can be
performed at the level of control, prophylaxis and treatment. Many bioactive
compounds isolated from medicinal plants have been studied for efficacy in controlling
COVID-19 infection by either repression of viral host cell adjunction and subsequent
penetration or by repression of viral genomic replication. The bioactive compounds
target specific viral or host cell molecules in order to control the spread of virus.
Another prominent approach is the development of plant-based vaccines to control the
COVID-19 infection and associated complications. The literature also provides
evidence of some phytonutrients present in the food supplements which are responsible
for increasing the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-stimulatory and anti-viral
activities in the host cells.
For the purpose of COVID prophylaxis and treatment, these phytonutrients can be
administered in appropriate functional doses. The chapter is a compilation of research
on SARS CoV-2 with its life cycle, pathogenesis, currently used drugs for treatment,
including the synthetic ones and the medical herbs and the specific bioactive
compounds found efficacious against COVID-19.