Biomarker studies are becoming increasingly interesting for many fields of medicine. The use of biomarkers in medicine is involved in detecting diseases and supporting diagnosis and treatment decisions. New research and new discoveries on the molecular basis of the disease show that there may be a number of promising new biomarkers for use in daily clinical practice. Clinical trials in children lag behind adult research both in quality and quantity. The number of biomarkers validated to optimize pediatric patient management is limited. In the pathogenesis of many diseases, it should not be extrapolated to the pediatric clinical setting, taking into account that biomarkers that are effective in adults are clearly different in children and that ontogeny directly affects disease development and therapeutic response in children. The search for ideal biomarkers or markers that can make an early and definitive diagnosis in neonatal sepsis is still ongoing. The ideal biomarker for pediatric diseases should be costeffective, noninvasive, applicable to pediatric specific diseases, and its results should correspond to age-related physiological changes. Lactate, troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide are valuable biomarkers in the evaluation and management of critically ill children with cardiac disease. Tumor markers in children are biochemical substances used in the clinical treatment of pediatric tumors and to detect the presence of cancer (regression or progression). In this chapter, current and brief information about biomarkers and their clinical applications used in the diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric diseases is presented.