The use of nitrogen in an efficient way in agriculture has economic as well
as environmental challenges. Bio-fertilizers and green manures are eco-friendly and
economical sources for enhancing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for sustainable
agriculture. In the era of climate change, conjunctive application of both bio-fertilizers
and chemical fertilizers is required for soil health and sustainable yield as well. Azolla
is one of the Biofertilizer that has the potential to fix nitrogen biologically, increase
nitrogen recovery and enhance the rice yield. The regular application of Azolla
significantly increases soil organic nitrogen content, which is much more beneficial
than inorganic nitrogen. Azolla possesses the potential to mitigate major problems that
are of global concern and can be used as a multi-faceted biofertilizer. Usage of Azolla
in agriculture has various advantages as it has a positive impact on enhanced
productivity and reduces input costs. They are also involved in the bioremediation of
heavy metals and several toxic pollutants. Hence, it possesses great potential for its
usage as a biofertilizer in the era of climate change.
Keywords: Azolla, Bio-fertilizers, Biological nitrogen fixation, Green manures, Nitrogen use efficiency.