In the present chapter, the recent studies on artificial insemination (AI) of
livestock (large and small) animals via the intrauterine route are summarized. For this,
intrauterine inseminations especially in cattle, horse, camel, buffalo, sheep, goat, dog,
and cat species will be considered in detail. Brief data on inseminations in other species
(pig, turkey, hen, honeybees, silkworm) is also given.
Once semen sample is collected from sexually mature and clinically healthy breeding
male animals, it has to be kept alive (mainly by dilution and cooling) first and then
used either immediately (fresh) or stored (chilled/frozen) until being used in oestrous
females. During insertion of the semen (particularly stored ones), it is necessary to
place the inseminate in the vicinity of the ovum (Graafian follicle) as close as possible.
Hence, fertility results of insemination are always higher when semen is deposited
intrauterine. However, this is not as easy as we would expect, due mainly to the
anatomical structure of females (cat, dog, sheep, and hen) or viability of semen (fish
To overcome this female- or male-originated limiting factors of fertility, various novel
approaches have been reported towards acceptable rates of fertility outcome. Hence,
these recent insemination techniques are outlined herein.