Thermophilic fungi survive at a growth temperature above 45°C. Although
widely spread in the terrestrial region, they have remained underexplored, diverging
from other thermophiles of eubacteria and archaea. Thermophilic fungi elicited a lot of
interest due to their ability to produce thermostable and thermotolerant compounds
with practical applications in the field of biotechnology. Studies on growth kinetics,
physiology, supplement uptake, and protein breakdown rate in thermophilic fungi have
provided important information on these fungi. Thermophilic fungi can degrade
biomass such as polysaccharides into monomers. The characteristics of their enzymes
show contrasts among species, just as among strains of comparative species. Some
extracellular compounds separated from thermophilic fungi are commercially
produced, and a couple of others have the potential due to financial advantages.
Thermophilic fungal genes encoding lipase, protease, and various other vital enzymes
have been cloned and overexpressed in heterologous fungi for understanding the
mechanisms of their natural thermostability and catalysis.
Keywords: Bioethanol, Heat-tolerant enzymes, Hyperthermophiles, Lignocellulo -sic biomass, Metagenomics.