The respiratory system has a vital function in our body and several disorders
can cause Respiratory Insufficiency (RI). This disease, in turn, has an acute or chronic
form, as well as being classified as hypoxemic, hypercapnic and mixed. In addition,
there are three groups that cover the causes of RI, which are: hypoventilation,
impairment of diffusion and disturbances in the relationship between perfusion
ventilation. With regard to clinical manifestations, the respiratory system is affected by
this condition, from which the diagnosis of RI is made by blood gas analysis that
allows to differentiate it. In these cases, the patient is monitored by oximeters and
capnographs, the treatment being carried out by oxygen therapy and the use of invasive
and non-invasive mechanical ventilation.
Keywords: Mechanical Ventilation, Physiological Bases, Respiratory Insufficiency, Respiratory System.