Emerging Trends in Veterinary Virology

West Nile Virus

Author(s): Abdullah Iqbal*, Shumaila Manzoor and Muhammad Abubakar

Pp: 81-89 (9)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815036961122010009

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne RNA virus, first time isolated
in 1937 from Uganda. Now, WNV has been reported from throughout the world virus
with 9 possible phylogenetic lineages. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex are mainly
responsible for WNV transmission to birds and humans. In horses, WNV cause the
disease, and the infected horse suffers from lethargy and nervous disorder. WNV
causes West Nile virus disease in humans, which is characterized by skin rash, fever,
vomiting and sometimes neurological disorder. In contrast to the WNV vaccine in
animals, no vaccine against WNV is commercially available for humans. For veterinary
use, RecombiTEK is a commercially available recombinant vaccine against WNV.
WNV can be detected in horses by serological tests like hemagglutination inhibition,
ELISA, and plaque reduction neutralization or by necropsy of the brain. People who
have direct contact with birds and horses are more prone to WNV exposure than others.

Keywords: ChimeriVax-WN, Flavivirus, Mosquitoes, West nile, Wild birds.

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