The ocular surface is constantly exposed to the environment and is prone to severe injury or disease which may be responsible for vision loss. Serious corneal injuries may result in permanent vision loss and their treatment remains a clinical challenge. MSCs and their secreted factors (secretome) have extensively been studied for their regenerative properties in preclinical models. The plethora of cytokines and growth factors, as well as EVs released by MSCs, act in concert against scarring, neovascularisation and inflammation, and assist in the re-epithelialisation process of the ocular surface after injuries. Different routes of MSC and EV administration have been studied in preclinical models, and thereafter employed in the clinical setting in order to maximise the efficacy of MSC-based treatment for corneal disturbances. This chapter describes the possible routes of administration, including systemic, local and topical delivery of stem cells and their bio-products, and the associated efficiency of repair.
Keywords: Alkali burn, Clinical studies, Corneal regeneration, Extracellular vesicles, Inflammation, Injured ocular surface repair, Intrastromal injection, Limbal stem cell deficiency, Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, Mouse model, Neovascularisation, Periorbital delivery, Preclinical studies, Secretome, Stem cells, Subconjunctival injection, Systemic delivery, Topical application, Transplantation routes, Wound healing.