Basic experimental research on stem cells has paved the way towards an array of possible clinical applications. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), due to their multipotent properties and easily accessible sources, are the most studied stem cell types in a spectrum of diseases and injuries. Cell viability and dosage, delivery routes, homing and engraftment are some of the crucial factors that ensure the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted stem cell therapy in preclinical as well as clinical studies. In this chapter, we will introduce the types of stem cells and their derivatives that can be used for tissue repair and regeneration. In particular, the reasons behind the choice of certain cell types for transplantation and associated strategies are discussed based on knowledge gained on MSC research and its application for the treatment of human diseases. The administration route and cell carrier materials are among the factors that can influence the residence time, viability, and homing of stem cells.
Keywords: Adult stem cells, Allogeneic cell transplantation, Cell dosage, Cell homing, Cell transplantation, Clinical applications, Embryonic stem cells, Hematopoietic stem cells, Human diseases, Immunomodulation, Induced pluripotent stem cells, Local cell delivery, Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, MSC engraftment, Preclinical studies, Secretome, Sources of MSCs, Spermatogonial stem cells, Systemic delivery, Transdifferentiation.