The basic materials have been potentially applied to the automobile, marine, aerospace and biomedical sectors. Surface modifications are required to increase tribological behaviors and mechanical properties of basic material surfaces using lasers. The material surface properties are improved through laser without altering the bulk. The surface modifications on materials have been focused on by many researchers due to their needs. However, the laser surface modifications on materials are a suitable method for improving tribological and mechanical properties of the surface due to the number of features and economy. In this chapter, laser surface hardening has been analyzed based on the microstructure, wear, coefficient of friction, microhardness, surface roughness, worn-out surface, and tensile strength. Therefore, laser surface hardening is recognized as an important topic based on surface engineering and metallurgical limitations.