Aristolochia longa is a medicinal plant used in traditional Mediterranean pharmacopeia to treat different diseases. It shows significant anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antitumoral pharmacological effects. The extracts of this plant are rich in bioactive molecules belonging to different chemical families such as limonene, aristolochic acid, β-caryophyllene, and deenax. However, excessive use of this plant causes severe toxicity to the user. The aim of the present review is to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Aristolochia longa components, their therapeutic use, and the active ingredient responsible for the toxicity of this plant, which constitutes a public health problem observed with it’s wide use in cancer patients.
Keywords: Aristolochia longa, Anticancer, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Phytochemical, Toxicity.