Since endothelial cells are not able to create capillaries by themselves, proangiogenic factors are indispensable for endothelial cells to migrate and form microcapillaries. Thus, exogenous proangiogenic compounds are needed to improve the formation of microcapillary-like structures. Multiple forms of cell-cell interactions could result in the production of essential proangiogenic factors in co-culture systems. Many studies have examined that the co-culture systems of endothelial cells and other cell types, such as osteoblasts or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can facilitate the formation of capillary-like structures. The focus of this chapter is threefold: (1) Informing the biological function of vascularization in the physiological environment. (2) Introducing typical co-culture system models for vascularization. (3) Identifying the proangiogenic factors that play crucial roles in the formation of capillary-like structures.
Keywords: Biomechanical Stimulation, Bone Tissue Engineering, Cardiac Regeneration, Cell-ECM Adhesion, Cellular Interactions, Co-culture, Cell-cell Adhesion, Direct co-culture, Endothelial Cells, Extracellular Matrix, Indirect coculture, Media, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Osteoblast, Oxygen Environment, Scaffolds, Seeding Methods, Skin Regeneration, Soluble Factors, Vascularization.