Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Cardiovascular Disease Complications: A Textbook for Medical Students

Myocardial Infarction

Author(s): A. Bharath Kumar and M.S. Umashankar

Pp: 160-171 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/9789811468216120010014

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Myocardial infarction occurred due to severe myocardial ischemia that leads to myocardial necrosis and cardiac remodeling results in the progression of heart failure. The clinical manifestations of the myocardial infarction include sweating, shortness of breath, abnormal heart beating, vomiting, weakness, nausea, fatigue, stress contribute to the development of myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular diseases are the cause of mortality and morbidity from worldwide countries. Cardiovascular disease incidence is expected to increase by 25 million by the year 2020. The progression of myocardial infarction is associated with various risk factors which include smoking, alcohol, high lipid levels; hypertension can likely increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Every year worldwide more than 3 million people are affected with myocardial infarction. The increasing incidence of myocardial infarction was high in males as compared with females. Previous research studies stated that patients with more than 45 years of age can develop the disease. Atherosclerosis is one of the major risk factors for the development of myocardial infarction. It is a chronic inflammatory condition of the endothelial cells, in which the T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages cells can thicken the endothelial cell layers which leads to the progression of atherosclerotic events. Chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, holter monitoring, coronary angiogram, and stress test is used to detect the severity of disease complications. The pharmacological management of myocardial infarction includes anticoagulants, thrombolytics and percutaneous coronary intervention that can lower the progression of disease complications.

Keywords: Coronary Angiogram, Echocardiogram, Hypertension, Myocardial Infarction, Thrombolytics.

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