Celiac Disease is a serious autoimmune disorder that can emerge in genetically predisposed persons where the ingestion of gluten could damage the small intestine. It can develop at any age and if left untreated, it can lead to severe health problems. Celiac disease has a hereditary component and when a celiac person eats gluten (a protein found in wheat, barley and rye), the body begins an immune response that leads to damage the small fingerlike projections (villous) of the small intestine, avoiding the proper absorption of nutrients into the body. In this chapter, we intend to present a brief review of the literature that has been produced, following the new perspectives on celiac disease approach. We present a brief description of recent advances in the celiac disease diagnosis, treatment and gluten-free diet.