The generation of specific neuronal-lineages for cellular therapies hold great promise for nervous system disorders. Stem cells can offer regenerative and replacement therapies of the nervous system through cell signalling, which is directed by the addition of cytokines and neuronal growth factors. Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) are capable of differentiating into neuronal and glial cells through induced cell signalling pathways and altered redox status. In this chapter, we addressed the dynamic changes within ASCs in response to the changes in its milieu - a pre-requisite for transdifferentiation in vitro. We considered the functional use of ASCs as a regenerative tool in recovering neuronal cells by focusing on ligand expression and their effects on transmembrane receptors. We also discussed various levels of cell signalling capable of modifying epigenetic programming for trans-differentiation processes. Finally, we underlined the fact that harnessing of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and ROSmediated cellular signalling is a secret recipe for successful differentiation of stem cells in vitro.
Keywords: Adipose stem cells, Cell signalling, Differentiation, Epigenetics, Growth factors, Glia, Laser, Light, Neurons, Photobiomodulation, Reactive Oxygen Species.