Modern societies are called upon to face the consequences of their persistence on using fossil fuels. Energy resources shortage and environment pollution urge us to find alternative advanced technologies for viable and sustainable growth. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems supported by renewable energy sources (mainly solar energy) can be viewed as an effective means of achieving the aforementioned goal. This study reviews the available TES systems. In this context, sensible TES systems which utilize liquid and solid storage media and their applications are presented. Furthermore, the usage of ice and other solid-liquid phase change materials in latent heat storage systems is investigated in terms of materials, applications and future trends. Finally, the utilization of thermochemical reactions in TES systems is presented.