Since the last century, polymeric membrane technology has been offering economical and efficient solutions for emissions control and energy security. However, polymeric membranes in separation and purification environment, are facing challenges such as correct material selection, polymer modification for the resolution of permeability, selectivity, low resistance to fouling and low mechanical strength. Among all these problems, the three types of fouling i.e., inorganic, organic and biological are the critical applications of membrane issue. Technically, organic and inorganic fouling can be controlled or minimized but the practical approaches to control biological fouling, particularly the membranes, used in the seawater desalination application are still facing issues, and the limitations to control biofouling. Recently, nanoparticles have shown real potential for the improvement of the membrane life. This chapter gives a comprehensive review of the critical aspects of the preparation and use of polymeric membranes in combination with standard additives and their influence on membrane permeability and selectively. The recent development of polymeric membranes loaded with nanoparticles against bio-fouling has also been reviewed in this chapter.