The material with small size and high efficiency is the topic of the future. It is valuable and important in the field of separation and purification science. This chapter discusses ion-exchange materials, natural, synthetic, organic, inorganic and organic-inorganic nanocomposite. In this chapter, we discussed about the chromatography of ion-exchange particularly cation-exchanger and its uses as desalination and ion-selective electrode. The Estimation of the impact on the manufacturing procedure on the environment requires a systemic approach and suitable metrics for the quantitative valuation of environmental threats. Thus, this chapter starts with an overview on cation exchange materials for green technology as well as the metrics starting the procedure. Therefore, there are many applications of cationexchange materials and their derivatives have been explained in this chapter. In addition, the technological advancement in inorganic nanocomposite, cation-exchange materials from old era to modern age of nano are also explained as green chemistry and can be implemented to actual developments. Specifically, two elements are highlighted: (a) the usage of new resources for the facilitation of selective and active chemistry and the implementation of the said materials for the removal of hazardous materials for environment.