Recent years have witnessed the devastating impact of climate change on mankind and environment. Explosive growth in human population, indiscriminate burning of fossil fuels and rapid expansion of industrial sector have significantly contributed in worsening the current status of environment and the situation is highly anticipated to aggravate on extended time scale. To avert any further extreme environmental deterioration, adaptation of eco-friendly and cost effective alternatives is indispensable in order to address the global challenges in energy, industry and environmental sectors. These concerns have led to numerous scientific endeavours from multidisciplinary areas aimed at modifying existing technologies and designing new approaches with distinct economic and environmental benefits. Nanotechnology is genuinely one such revolutionary field of science with unlimited potential applications. This is evident from some of the greatest breakthroughs in the area of environmental protection, remediation and pollution prevention. With this idea, the present chapter is set to explore the fundamental aspects and promising applications of nanotechnology with emphasis on its role in environmental sustainability. In short, nanotechnology has significantly contributed in benefiting society and shaping the nature of modern life, hence it would be appropriate to consider it as the “Realm of Wonders”
Keywords: Agriculture, Environmental monitoring, Environmental protection, Membrane technology, Nanotechnology, Nano-enhanced industry technology, Nano-enhanced energy technologies, Photocatalysis, Remediation.