250 Years of Industrial Consumption and Transformation of Nature: Impacts on Global Ecosystems and Life

Transformation of Ecosystems in the Spheres of Earth

Author(s): Hubert Engelbrecht

Pp: 57-58 (2)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681086019117010009

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Anthropogenic forcings caused complex ecosystem transformations in the pedo-, cryo-, hydro-, atmo-, and biospheres and global adaptive pressure on biota.

Keywords: Adaptation, Anthropogenic forcings, Ecosystem transformations.

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