Generic placeholder image

Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

The Healing Effects of Spices in Chronic Diseases

Author(s): Danka Bukvicki*, Davide Gottardi, Sahdeo Prasad, Miroslav Novakovic, Petar D. Marin and Amit Kumar Tyagi

Volume 27, Issue 26, 2020

Page: [4401 - 4420] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180831145800

Price: $65


Spices are not only just herbs used in culinary for improving the taste of dishes, they are also sources of a numerous bioactive compounds significantly beneficial for health. They have been used since ancient times because of their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and carminative properties. Several scientific studies have suggested their protective role against chronic diseases. In fact, their active compounds may help in arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc.), diabetes, sore muscles, gastrointestinal problems and many more. In the present study, possible roles of spices and their active components, in chronic diseases (cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) along with their mechanism of action have been reviewed.

Keywords: Spices, natural products, chronic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases.

Kaefer, C.M.; Milner, J.A. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2008, 19(6), 347-361.
[] [PMID: 18499033]
Rosengarten, F., Jr The book of spices; Jove Publ., Inc.: New York, 1969, pp. 23-96.
Tapsel, L.C.; Hemphill, I.; Cobiac, L.; Patch, C.S.; Sullivan, D.R.; Fenech, M.; Roodenrys, S.; Keogh, J.B.; Clifton, P.M.; Williams, P.G.; Fazio, V.A.; Inge, K.E. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. Med. J. Aust., 2006, 185(S4), S1-S24.
[] [PMID: 17022438]
Redzic, S. Wild medicinal plants and their usage in traditional human therapy (Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, W. Balkan). J. Med. Plants Res., 2010, 4, 1003-1027.
Bower, A.; Marquez, S.; de Mejia, E.G. The health benefits of selected culinary herbs and spices found in the traditional mediterranean diet. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2016, 56(16), 2728-2746.
[] [PMID: 25749238]
Krishnaswamy, K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 2008, 17(Suppl,1), 265-268.
[PMID: 18296352]
Wang, G.W.; Hu, W. T.; Huang, B.K.; Qin, L.P. Illicium verum: a review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2011, 136(1), 10-20.
[] [PMID: 21549817]
Rather, M.A.; Dar, B.A.; Sofi, N.S.; Bhat, B.A.; Qurishi, M.A. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety. Arab. J. Chem., 2016, 9, S1574-S1583.
Ooi, L.S.M.; Li, Y.; Kam, S.L.; Wang, H.; Wong, E.Y.L.; Ooi, V.E.C. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2006, 34(3), 511-522.
[] [PMID: 16710900]
Gall, A.; Shenkute, Z. Ethiopian traditional and herbal medications and their interactions with conventional drugs. 2010.Available at.
Native American and Other Ancient Remedies. Available at.
Ranilla, L.G.; Kwon, Y.I.; Apostolidis, E.; Shetty, K. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresour. Technol., 2010, 101(12), 4676-4689.
[] [PMID: 20185303]
Srinivasan, K. Role of Spices Beyond Food Flavoring: Nutraceuticals with Multiple Health Effects. Food Rev. Int., 2005, 21, 167-188.
Rubió, L.; Motilva, M.J.; Romero, M.P. Recent Advances in Biologically Active Compounds in Herbs and Spices: A Review of the Most Effective Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Active Principles. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2013, 53(9), 943-953.
[] [PMID: 23768186]
Gawlik-Dziki, U. Modification of enzymatic and non-enzymatic in vitro oxidative defence system by bioaccessible phytonutrients of selected spices. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 2014, 57, 434-441.
Arranz, E.; Jaime, L.; Lopez de la Hazas, M.C.; Vicente, G.; Reglero, G.; Santoyo, S. Supercritical sage extracts as anti-inflammatory food ingredients. Ind. Crops Prod., 2014, 54, 159-166.
Fu, Y.; Gao, R.; Cao, Y.; Guo, M.; Wei, Z.; Zhou, E.; Li, Y.; Yao, M.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, N. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2014, 20(1), 54-58.
[] [PMID: 24508537]
Hsiang, C.Y.; Lo, H.Y.; Huang, H.C.; Li, C.C.; Wu, S.L.; Ho, T.Y. Ginger extract and zingerone ameliorated trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis in mice via modulation of nuclear factor-κB activity and interleukin-1β signalling pathway. Food Chem., 2013, 136(1), 170-177.
[] [PMID: 23017409]
Mueller, M.; Hobiger, S.; Jungbauer, A. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spices. Food Chem., 2010, 122, 987-996.
Sung, B; Prasad, S.; Yadav, V.R.; Aggarwal, B.B. Cancer cell signaling pathways targeted by spice-derived nutraceuticals Nutr. Cancer, 2012, 64(2), 173-197.
[] [PMID: 22149093]
Prasad, S.; Gupta, S.C.; Aggarwal, B.B. Micronutrients and cancer: add spice to your life In: Nutrition, Diet and Cancer,; Shankar, S.; Srivastava, R.K. (Eds.), Springer Link. , 2012; pp. 23-48.
Prasad, S.; Gupta, S.C.; Tyagi, A.K.; Aggarwal, B.B. Curcumin, a component of golden spice: From bedside to bench and back. Biotechnol. Adv., 2014, 32(6), 1053-1064.
[] [PMID: 24793420]
Vishvakarma, N.K. Novel antitumor mechanisms of curcumin: implication of altered tumor metabolism, reconstituted tumor microenvironment and augmented myelopoiesis. Phyto. Rev., 2014, 13, 717-724.
Prasad, S.; Aggarwal, B.B. Chronic Diseases Caused by Chronic Inflammation Require Chronic Treatment: Anti-inflammatory Role of Dietary Spices. Clinic. Cell. Immunol., 2014, 5, 4.
Friedman, M. Chemistry and Multibeneficial Bioactivities of Carvacrol (4-Isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a Component of Essential Oils Produced by Aromatic Plants and Spices. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62(31), 7652-7670.
[] [PMID: 25058878]
Xu, X.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Z.; Cao, T.; He, H.; Luo, Z.; Zhong, J.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Z.; Li, L.; Yan, Z.; Chen, J.; Ni, Y.; Liu, D.; Zhu, Z. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 by dietary capsaicin delays the onset of stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stroke, 2011, 42(11), 3245-3251.
[] [PMID: 21852608]
Mirmosayyeb, O.; Tanhaei, A.; Sohrabi, H.R.; Martins, R.N.; Tanhaei, M.; Najafi, M.A.; Safaei, A.; Meamar, R. Possible role of common spices as a preventive and therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease. Int. J. Prev. Med., 2017, 8, 5.
[] [PMID: 28250905]
Hoppe, J.B.; Frozza, R.L.; Pires, E.N.; Meneghetti, A.B.; Salbego, C. The curry spice curcumin attenuates beta-amyloid-induced toxicity through beta-catenin and PI3K signaling in rat organotypic hippocampal slice culture. Neurol. Res., 2013, 35(8), 857-866.
[] [PMID: 23816368]
Mehdi, F.; Sabet, S. Mehdi Negar; I.; Amirhossein, G.; Habibeh; Y.; Roozbeh, A.; Farzaneh, F.; Maryam, K.; Shahin, A. Comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with memantine in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease: a double‐blind randomized clinical trial. Hum. Psychopharm. Clin. Exp., 2014, 29, 351-359.
[] [PMID: 25163440]
Akhondzadeh, S.; Tahmacebi-Pour, N.; Noorbala, A.A.; Amini, H.; Fallah-Pour, H.; Jamshidi, A-H.; Khani, M. Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Phytother. Res., 2005, 19(2), 148-151.
[] [PMID: 15852492]
Akhondzadeh Basti, A.; Moshiri, E.; Noorbala, A.A.; Jamshidi, A.H.; Abbasi, S.H.; Akhondzadeh, S. Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot doubleblind randomized trial. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2007, 31(2), 439-442.
[] [PMID: 17174460]
Noorbala, A.A. Akhondzadeh. S.; Tahmacebi-Pour, N.; Jamshidi, A.H. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2005, 97(2), 281-284.
[] [PMID: 15707766]
Akhondzadeh, S.; Sabet, M.S.; Harirchian, M.H.; Togha, M.; Cheraghmakani, H.; Razeghi, S.; Hejazi, S.Sh.; Yousefi, M.H.; Alimardani, R.; Jamshidi, A.; Zare, F.; Moradi, A. Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: A 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 2010, 35(5), 581-588.
[] [PMID: 20831681]
Enas, A. Khalil. Study the Possible Protective and Therapeutic Influence of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Against Neurodegenerative Disorders and Alzheimer’s disease Induced by Aluminum Chloride in Cerebral Cortex of Male Albino Rats. Nat. Sci., 2010, 8, 202-213.
Essa, M.M.; Braidy, N.; Bridge, W.; Subash, S.; Manivasagam, T.; Vijayan, R.K.; Al-Adawi, S.; Guillemin, G.J. Review of natural products on Parkinson’s disease pathology J. Aging Res. Clin. Practice, 2014, 14(32), 127.
Wang, X-S.; Zhang, Z-R.; Zhang, M-M.; Sun, M-X.; Wang, W-W. Xie, C-L. Neuroprotective properties of curcumin in toxin-base animal models of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic experiment literatures review. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2017, 17(1), 412.
[] [PMID: 28818104]
Bhatia, N.K.; Srivastava, A.; Nidhi Katyal, N.; Jain, N. M. Ashhar I. Khan, M.A.I.; Kundu, S.; Deep, S. Curcumin binds to the pre-fibrillar aggregates of Cu/Zn superoxide resulting in reduced cytotoxicity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2015, 1854(5), 426-436.
[] [PMID: 25666897]
Chico, L. Curcumin as an ROS scavenger in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reac. oxygen species,, 2017, 5(2), 339-354.
Sandhir, R.; Yadav, A.; Mehrotra, A.; Sunkaria, A.; Singh, A.; Sharma, S. Curcumin Nanoparticles Attenuate Neurochemical and Neurobehavioral Deficits in Experimental Model of Huntington’s Disease. Neuromolec. Med., 2014, 16(1), 106-118.
[] [PMID: 24008671]
Singh, S.; Jamwal, S.; Kumar, P. Piperine Enhances the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against 3-NP Induced Neurotoxicity: Possible Neurotransmitters Modulation Mechanism. Neurochem. Res., 2015, 40(8), 1758-1766.
[] [PMID: 26160706]
Chongtham, A.; Agrawal, N. Curcumin modulates cell death and is protective in Huntington’s disease model. Sci. Rep., 2016, 6(18736)
[] [PMID: 26728250]
Srinivasan, K. Antioxidant Potential of Spices and Their Active Constituents. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2014, 54(3), 352-372.
[] [PMID: 24188307]
Shen, L.R.; Parnell, L.D.; Ordovas, J.M.; Lai, C.Q. Curcumin and aging. Biofactors, 2013, 39(1), 133-140.
[] [PMID: 23325575]
Bala, K. Effect of garlic and turmeric extracts, and their functional components diallylsulphide and curcumin respectively, on aging rat brain., 2014.
Burt, S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods - a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2004, 94(3), 223-253.
[] [PMID: 15246235]
Wilkinson, J.M. Effect of ginger tea on the fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats. Reprod. Toxicol., 2000, 14(6), 507-512.
[] [PMID: 11099876]
Weidner, M.S.; Sigwart, K. The safety of a ginger extract in the rat. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2000, 73(3), 513-520.
[] [PMID: 11091007]
Chrubasik, S.; Pittler, M.H.; Roufogalis, B.D. Zingiberis rhizoma: a comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine, 2005, 12(9), 684-701.
[] [PMID: 16194058]
Martins, I.J. Indian spices and unhealthy diets interfere with drug therapy in diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Nov. Appro. Drug Des. Dev, 2018, 3
Ono, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Naiki, H.; Yamada, M. Curcumin has potent antiamyloidogenic effects for Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid fibrils in vitro. J. Neurosci. Res., 2004, 75(6), 742-750.
[] [PMID: 14994335]
Garcia-Alloza, M.; Borrelli, L.A.; Rozkalne, A.; Hyman, B.T.; Bacskai, B.J. Curcumin labels amyloid pathology in vivo, disrupts existing plaques, and partially restores distorted neurites in an Alzheimer mouse model. J. Neurochem., 2007, 102(4), 1095-1104.
[] [PMID: 17472706]
Kim, D.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Han, Y. Curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Patents CNS Drug Discov., 2012, 7(3), 184-204.
[] [PMID: 22742420]
Gottardi, D.; van den Abbeele, P.; Marzorati, M. Use of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®) to study the fate of food ingredients and actives AgroFOOD Industry Hi Tech - Probiotic/Prebiotic, 2016, 27(5)
Cardona, F.; Andrés-Lacueva, C.; Tulipani, S.; Tinahones, F.J.; Queipo-Ortuño, M.I. Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2013, 24(8), 1415-1422.
[] [PMID: 23849454]
Baquero, F.; Nombela, C. The microbiome as a human organ. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2012, 18(Suppl. 4), 2-4.
[] [PMID: 22647038]
Shreiner, A.B.; Kao, J.Y.; Young, V.B. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol., 2015, 31(1), 69-75.
[] [PMID: 25394236]
Ho, J.W.S.; Cheung, M.W.M. Combination of Phytochemicals as Adjuvants for Cancer therapy. Recent Patents Anticancer Drug Discov.,, 2014, 9(3), 297-302.
[] [PMID: 24942759]
Sansone, F.; Picerno, P.; Mencherini, T.; Porta, A.; Lauro, M.R.; Russo, P.; Aquino, R.P. Technological properties and enhancement of antifungal activity of a Paeonia rockii extract encapsulated in a chitosan-based matrix. J. Food Eng., 2014, 120, 260-267.
Gottardi, D.; Bukvicki, D.; Prasad, S.; Tyagi, A.K. Beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and safety. Front. Microbiol., 2016, 7(1394) 1394
[] [PMID: 27708620]
Thomson, M.; Ali, M. Garlic [Allium sativum]: A Review of its Potential Use as an Anti-Cancer Agent. Curr. Cancer Drug Targets, 2003, 3(1), 67-81.
[] [PMID: 12570662]
Kucekova, Z.; Mlcek, J.; Humpolicek, P.; Rop, O.; Valasek, P.; Saha, P. Phenolic compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and their antiproliferative effects. Molecules, 2011, 16(11), 9207-9217.
[] [PMID: 22051932]
Singh, V.; Chauhan, G.; Krishan, P.; Shri, R. Allium schoenoprasum L.: a review of phytochemistry, pharmacology and future directions. Nat. Prod. Res., 2018, 32(18), 2202-2216.
[] [PMID: 28826254]
Kaushik, D.; Yadav, J.; Kaushik, P.; Sacher, D.; Rani, R. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga. J. Chin. Integr. Med., 2011, 9(10), 1061-1065.
[] [PMID: 22015185]
Kinra, K.T.; Babu, S.; Gundlapally, J. Extraction of medicinal compounds and analysing their anticancer activity of Ammomum subulatum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum verum and Glycyrrhiza glabra & In-Silico Analysis Of km 23-1,a cancer receptor. Helix, 2014, 2, 506-510.
Bhatt, R.M.; Juyal, V.; Singh, A. Amomum subulatum Roxb: a critical review of pharmacological and phytochemical data Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res, 2014. (eIJPPR),eIJPPR/2013/215.
Bhat, Z.A.; Kumar, D.; Shah, M.Y. Angelica archangelica Linn. is an angel on earth for the treatment of diseases. Int. J. Nutr. Pharmacol. Neurol. Dis., 2011, 1, 36-50.
Al-Snafi, A.E. The pharmacological importance of Anethum graveolens. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci.,, 2014, 6(4), 11-13.
Zeng, H.; Tian, J.; Zheng, Y.; Ban, X.; Zeng, J.; Mao, Y.; Wang, Y. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2011, 2011659704
[] [PMID: 21716714]
Payahoo, L.; Ostadrahimi, A.; Mobasseri, M.; Bishak, Y.K.; Jafarabadi, M.A.; Mahdavi, A.B.; Mahluji, S. Anethum graveolens L. supplementation has anti-inflammatory effect in type 2 diabetic patients. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2014, 13, 461-465.
Fazal, S.S.; Singla, R.K. Review on the Pharmacognostical & Pharmacological Characterization of Apium graveolens Linn, Indo Global. J. Pharm. Sci., 2012, 2(1), 36-42.
Agneta, R.; Möllers, C.; Rivelli, R.R. Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), a neglected medical and condiment species with a relevant glucosinolate profile: a review. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., 2013, 60(7), 1923-1943.
Obolskiy, D.; Pischel, I.; Feistel, B.; Glotov, N.; Heinrich, M. Artemisia dracunculus L. (Tarragon): A critical review of its traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology, and safety. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59(21), 11367-11384.
[] [PMID: 21942448]
Eng-Chong, T.; Yean-Kee, L.; Chin-Fei, C.; Choon-Han, H.; Sher-Ming, W.; Li-Ping, C.T.; Gen-Teck, F.; Khalid, N.; Abd Rahman, N.; Karsani, S.A.; Othman, S.; Othman, R.; Rohana Yusof, R. Boesenbergia rotunda: from ethnomedicine to drug discovery Evid. Based Complement.Alternat. Med.,, 2012, 2012 473637
[] [PMID: 23243448]
Anuradha, M.; Pragyandip, D.; Murthy, P.N.; Siddique, H.H.; Poonam, K. A Classical Review on Rajika (Brassica juncea), Research and Reviews. J. Bot.Sci., 2012, 1, 18-23.
Bassan, P.; Sharma, S.; Arora, S.; Vig, A.P. Int. J. Pharma Sci., 2013, 3, 343-349.
Kiasalari, Z.; Khalili, M.; Roghani, M.; Sadeghian, A. Antiepileptic and antioxidant effect of Brassica nigra on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Iran. J. Pharm. Res., 2012, 11(4), 1209-1217.
[PMID: 24250555]
Hajhashemi, V.; Sajjadi, S.E.; Zomorodkia, M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Bunium persicum essential oil, hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts in animal models. Pharm. Biol., 2011, 49(2), 146-151.
[] [PMID: 20942602]
Maji, A.K.; Banerji, P. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review. J. Complement. Integr. Med., 2016, 13(2), 97-122.
[] [PMID: 26756096]
Kim, K.S.; Yoo, H.Y.; Park, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Zhang, Y.H.; Kim, S.J. Differential effects of acute hypoxia on the activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin and acidic pH. J. Physiol. Sci.,, 2012, 62(2), 93-103.
[] [PMID: 22215506]
Agrahari, P.; Singh, D.K. A review on the pharmacological aspects of Carum carvi. J. Biol. Earth Sci., 2014, 4, M1-M13.
Bansode, V.J. A review on pharmacological activities of Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Int. J. Green Pharm., 2012, 6, 102-108.
Al-Dhubiab, B.E. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii. Pharmacogn. Rev.,, 2012, 6(12), 125-131.
[] [PMID: 23055638]
Unlu, M.; Ergene, E.; Unlu, G.V.; Zeytinoglu, H.S.; Vural, N. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume (Lauraceae). Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010, 48(11), 3274-3280.
[] [PMID: 20828600]
Jakhetia, V.; Patel, R.; Khatri, P.; Pahuja, N.; Garg, S.; Pandey, A.; Sharma, S. Cinnamon: A pharmacological review. J. Adv. Sci. Res., 2010, 1, 19-23.
Arumugam, A.; Gunasekaran, N.; Perumal, S. The medicinal and nutritional role of underutilized citrus fruit Citrus hystrix (Kaffir lime): a review. Drug Inven.Today., 2014, 6(1), 1-5.
Lim, T.K. Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants In: Fruits, XV; , 2012; p. 835.
Hsouna, A.B.; Trigui, M.; Mansour, R.B.; Jarraya, R.M.; Damak, M.; Jaoua, S. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia siliqua essential oil with preservative effects against Listeria inoculated in minced beef meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2011, 148(1), 66-72.
[] [PMID: 21601302]
Lee, D.H.; Park, K. Flavonoids isolated from Korea Citrus aurantium L. induce G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells Evid Based Complement. Alternat. Med.,, 2012, 2012(3) 515901
[] [PMID: 22194772]
Tang, E.L.H.; Rajarajeswaran, J.; Fung, S.Y.; Kanthimathi, M.S. Antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum and protection against DNA damage and cancer cell migration. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2013, 13, 347.
[] [PMID: 24517259]
Momin, H.A.; Acharya, S.S; Gajjar, A.V Coriandrum sativumreview of advances in phytopharma-cology Int. J.Pharm. Sci. Res., 2015.
Shivanand, P. Coriandrum sativumA biological description and its uses in the treatment of various diseases Int. J. Pharm. Life Sci, 2010.
Zheng, C.J.; Li, L.; Ma, W.H.; Han, T.; Qin, L.P. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the liposoluble fraction from different medicinal parts of Crocus sativus. Pharm. Biol., 2011, 49(7), 756-763.
[] [PMID: 21639689]
Bhargava, V.K. Medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of Crocus sativus Linn (Saffron). Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2011, 3, 975-1491.
Gupta, S.C.; Sung, B.; Kim, J.H.; Prasad, S.; Li, S.; Aggarwal, B.B. Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 2013, 57(9), 1510-1528.
[] [PMID: 22887802]
Naksuriya, O.; Okonogi, S.; Schiffelers, R.M.; Hennink, W.E. Curcumin nanoformulations: A review of pharmaceutical properties and preclinical studies and clinical data related to cancer treatment. Biomaterials, 2014, 35(10), 3365-3383.
[] [PMID: 24439402]
Chung, S.S.; Vadgama, J.V. Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit the cancer stem cell phenotype via down-regulation of STAT3-NFκB signaling. Anticancer Res.,, 2015, 35(1), 39-46.
[PMID: 25550533]
Al-Snafi, A.E. The pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum - A review. J. Pharm. (Cairo), 2016, 6, 46-65.
Manvitha, K.; Bidya, B. Review on pharmacological activity of Cymbopogon citrates. Int. J. Herb. Med., 2014, 1, 5-7.
Alqasoumi, S. Al-Sohaibani; M., Al-Howiriny; T., Al-Yahya; M., Rafatullah, S. Rocket “Eruca sativa”: a salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity. World J. Gastroenterol., 2009, 15(16), 1958-1965.
[] [PMID: 19399927]
Kumar, S.; Jawaid, T.; Dubey, D.S. Therapeutic Plants of Ayurveda; A Review on Anticancer. Phcog. J., 2011, 3(23), 1-11.
Shavandi, M.A.; Haddadian, Z.; Ismail, M.H.S. Eryngium foetidum L. Coriandrum sativum and Persicaria odorata L.: A review. J. Asian Sci. Res., 2012, 2, 410-426.
Paul, J.H.A.; Seaforth, C.E.; Tikasingh, T. Eryngium foetidum L.: A review. Fitoterapia, 2011, 82(3), 302-308.
[] [PMID: 21062639]
Mahendra, P.; Bisht, S. Ferula asafoetida: Traditional uses and pharmacological activity. Pharmacogn. Rev., 2012, 6(12), 141-146.
[] [PMID: 23055640]
Iranshahy, M.; Iranshahi, M. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin)-a review. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2011, 134(1), 1-10.
[] [PMID: 21130854]
Baliga, M.S.; Bhat, H.P.; Pai, R.J.; Boloor, R.; Palatty, P.L. The chemistry and medicinal uses of the underutilized Indian fruit tree Garcinia indica choisy (kokum): a review. Food Res. Int., 2011, 44, 1790-1799.
Elumalai, A.; Eswaraiah, M.C. A pharmacological review on Garcinia indica Choisy, Int. J. Univ. Pharm. Life Sci., 2011, 1, 508-206.
Hemati, A.; Azarnia, M.; Angaji, S.A. Medicinal effects of Heracleum persicum (Golpar). Middle East J. Sci. Res., 2010, 5, 17-176.
Asgarpanah, J.; Mehrabani, G.D. M.; Ahmadi, R.; Ranjbar M.S.A.; Ardebily, Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Heracleum persicum Desf. Ex Fischer: A review. J. Med. Plants Res., 2012, 6, 1813-1820.
Fathiazad, F. Hamedeyazdan A review on Hyssopus officinalis L.: Composition and biological activities. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2011, 5, 1959-1966.
Hikal, M.W.; Said-Al Ahl, H.A.H. Anti-leishmanial Activity of Hyssopus officinalis: A Review. Int. J. Envir. Plann Man., 2017, 3, 10-15.
Kumar, M.; Prasad, S.K.; Hemalatha, S. A current update on the phytopharmacological aspects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Pharmacogn. Rev.,, 2014, 8(15), 22-35.
[] [PMID: 24600193]
Fu, J.; Dai, L.; Lin, Z. Z.; Lu, H. Houttuynia cordata Thunb: A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacology and Quality Control. Chin. Med., 2013, 4, 101-123.
Chouksey, D.; Sharma, P.; Pawar, R.S. Biological activities and chemical constituents of Illicium verum hook fruits (Chinese star anise). Pharm. Sin., 2010, 1, 1-10.
Umar, M.I.; Asmawi, M.Z.B.Ч. A.; Altaf, C.P.; Iqbal, M.A. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae) extracts. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2011, 5, 1638-1647.
Preetha, T.S.; Hemanthakumar, A.S.; Krishnan, P.N. A comprehensive review of Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae): A high sought medicinal plant in Tropical Asia. J. Med. Plant Stud., 2016, 4, 270-276.
Patrakar, R.; Mansuriya, M.; Patil, P. Phytochemical and pharmacological review on Laurus nobilis. Int. J. Pharm Chem Sci, 2012, 1595602
Prusinowska, R.; Smigielski, B.K. Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.). Herba Polonica, 2014, 60(2)
Gorai, D.; Jash, K.S.; Singh, R.K.; Gangopadhyay, A. Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Limnophila aromatica (Scrophulariaceae): An Overview, Am. J. Phytomed. Clin. Therapy, 2014, 2, 348-356.
Folashade, K.O.; Egharevba, H.O. Essential oil of Lippia multiflora Moldenke:A review. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2012, 02, 15-23.
Moradkhani, H.; Sargsyan, E.; Bibak, H.; Naseri, B.; Sadat-Hosseini, M.; Fayazi-Barjin, A.; Meftahizade, H. Melissa officinalis L., a valuable medicine plant: A review. J. Med. Plants Res., 2010, 25, 2753-2759.
Shakeri, A.; Sahebkar, A.; Javadi, B. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2016, 188, 204-228.
[] [PMID: 27167460]
Sharafi, S.M.; Rasooli, I.; Owlia, P.; Taghizadeh, M.; Astaneh, S.D. Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals from Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials. Pharmacogn. Mag., 2010, 6(23), 147-153.
[] [PMID: 20931070]
McKay, D.L.; Blumberg, J.B. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother. Res., 2006, 20(8), 619-633.
[] [PMID: 16767798]
Erukainure, O.L.; Oke, V.O.; Owolabi, F.O.; Kayode, F.O.; Umanhonlen, E.E.; Aliyu, M. Chemical properties of Monodora myristica and its protective potentials against free radicals in vitro. Oxid. Antioxid. Med. Sci., 2012, 1, 127-132.
Agiriga, A.; Muthulisi Siwela, M. Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal: A Plant with Multiple Food, Health and Medicinal Applications: A Review. Am. J. Food Technol., 2017, 12, 271-284.
Handral, H.K.; Pandith, A.; Shruthi, S.D. A review on Murraya koenigii: multipotential medicinal plant. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 2012, 5(Suppl. 4), 5-14.
Piaru, S.P.; Mahmud, R.; Abdul Majid, A.M.S.; Ismail, S.; Man, C.N Chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities of the essential oils of Myristica fragrans and Morinda citrifolia. J. Sci. Food Agric., 2012, 92(3), 593-597.
[] [PMID: 25520982]
Kuete, V. Myristica fragrans: a review inMedicinal spices and vegetables from africa, therapeutic potential against metabolic, inflammatory, infectious and systemic diseases; Kuete, V. (Ed.), 2017, pp. 497-512.
Alipour, G.; Dashti, S.; Hosseinzadeh, H. Review of pharmacological effects of Myrtus communis L. and its active constituents. Phytother. Res., 2014, 28(8), 1125-1136.
[] [PMID: 24497171]
Baharvand-Ahmadi, B.; Bahmani, M.; Naghdi, N.; Saki, K.; Baharvand-Ahmadi, S.; Rafieian-Kopaei, M. Review on phytochemistry, therapeutic and pharmacological effects of myrtus (Myrtus communis). Der Pharmacia Lettre., 2015, 7, 160-165.
Sharma, N.K.; Ahirwar, D.; Jhade, D.; Gupta, S. Medicinal and phamacological potential of Nigella sativa: A Review. Ethnobotanical, 2009, 13, 946-955.
Ahmad, A.; Husain, A.; Mujeeb, M.; Khan, S.A.; Najmi, A.K.; Siddique, N.A.; Damanhouri, Z.A.; Anwar, F. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2013, 3(5), 337-352.
[] [PMID: 23646296]
Kooti, W.; Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Z.; Sharafi-Ahvazi, N.; Asadi-Samani, M.; Ashtary-Larky, D. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa). Chin. J. Nat. Med., 2016, 14(10), 732-745.
[] [PMID: 28236403]
Bilal, A.; Jahan, N.; Ahmed, A.; Bilal, S.N.; Habib, S.; Hajra, S. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Ocimum basilicum Linn. Int. J. Curr. Res. Rev., 2012, 4, 57-60.
El, S.N.; Karakaya, S. Olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves: potential beneficial effects on human health. Nutr. Rev., 2009, 67(11), 632-638.
[] [PMID: 19906250]
Khan, Y.; Panchal, S.; Vyas, N.; Butani, A.; Kumar, V. Olea europaea: a phyto-pharmacological review. Phgnosy Rev., 2007, 1, 114-118.
Grbovic, F.; Stanković, M.S.; Ćurčić, M.; Đorđević, N.; Šeklić, D.; Topuzović, M.; Marković, S. In Vitro cytotoxic activity of Origanum vulgare L. on HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines. Plants (Basel), 2013, 2(3), 371-378.
[] [PMID: 27137381]
Al Dhaheri, Y.; Attoub, S.; Arafat, K.; AbuQamar, S.; Viallet, J.; Saleh, A.; Al Agha, H.; Eid, A.; Iratni, R. Antimetastatic and anti-tumor growth effects of Origanum majorana on highly metastatic human breast cancer cells: inhibition of NFκB signaling and reduction of nitric oxide production. PLoS One, 2013, 8(7) e68808
[] [PMID: 23874773]
Vasudeva, P.; Vasudeva, N. Origanum majorana L. Phyto-pharmacological review Vasudeeva P and Vasudeeva N. Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour., 2015, 6, 261-267.
Ghasemzadeh, A.; Jaafar, H.Z.E. Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2013, 13, 341.
[] [PMID: 24289290]
Nadaf, A.B.; Wakte, K.V.; Thengane, R.J.; Jawali, N. Review on Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.: The plant with rich source of principle basmati aroma compound 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline. Icfai. Univ. J. Biotechnol, 2008, 2, 61-76.
Haidari, F.; Keshavarz, S.A.; Mohammad Shahi, M.; Mahboob, S-A.; Rashidi, M.R. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its flavonol constituents, kaempferol and quercetin, on serum uric acid levels, biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Iran. J. Pharm. Res., 2011, 10(4), 811-819.
[PMID: 24250417]
Agyare, C.; Appiah, T.; Boakye, Y.D.; Apenteng, J.A. Petroselinum crispum: a; Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, Therapeutic Potential Against Metabolic, Inflammatory, Infectious and Systemic Diseases, 2017, pp. 527-547.
Shojaii, A.; Fard, M.A. Review of pharmacological properties and chemical constituents of Pimpinella anisum. (ISRN Pharm)2012, 2012(510795)
[] [PMID: 22848853]
Woguem, V.; Maggi, F.; Fogang, H.P.; Tapondjoua, L.A.; Womeni, H.M.; Luana, Q.; Bramuccic, M.; Vitali, L.A.; Petrelli, D.; Lupidi, G.; Papa, F.; Vittori, S.; Barboni, L. Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of the volatile oil from the wild pepper Piper capense used in Cameroon as a culinary spice. Nat. Prod. Commun., 2013, 8(12), 1791-1796.
[] [PMID: 24555300]
Juliani, R.H.; Koroch, A.R.; Giordano, L.; Amekuse, L.; Koffa, S.; Asante-Dartey, J.; Simon, J.E. Piper guineense (Piperaceae): Chemistry, Traditional Uses, and Functional Properties of West African Black Pepper In: African Natural Plant Products Volume II: Discoveries and Challenges in Chemistry, Health, and Nutrition; Juliani, H.R.; Simon, J.E.; Ho, C-T, Eds.; ACS Publications, 2013; pp. 33-48.
Butt, M.S.; Pasha, I.; Sultan, M.T.; Randhawa, M.A.; Saeed, F.; Ahmed, W. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2013, 53(9), 875-886.
[] [PMID: 23768180]
Ahmad, N.; Fazal, H.; Abbasi, B.H.; Farooq, S.; Ali, M.; Khan, M.A. Biological role of Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper): a review. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2012, 2, 1945-1953.
Kubo, M.; Ishii, R.; Ishino, Y.; Harada, K.; Matsui, N.; Akagi, M.; Kato, E.; Hosoda, S.; Fukuyama, Y. Evaluation of constituents of Piper retrofractum fruits on neurotrophic activity. J. Nat. Prod, 2013, 76(4), 769-773.
[] [PMID: 23506561]
Ekowati, H. Septiyaningsih, Harwoko An extract of Zingiber officinale and Piper retrofractum, Combination and its effect to Cancer Cell Line. Indonesian J. Cancer Chemopreven., 2011, 2, 173-181.
[ p173-181]
Moyeenul Huq, A.K.M.; Jamal, J.A.; Stanslas, J. Ethnobotanical,phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxico-logical aspects of Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med.,, 2014.
Shabbir, A. Rhus coriaria Linn, a plant of medicinal, nutritional and industrial importance: a review. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 2012, 2, 505-512.
Faixova, Z.; Faix, S. Biological effects of rosemary (Rosmarinas officinalis L,) essential oil (A Review). Folia Vet., 2008, 52, 135-139.
Miraj, S. An Evidence-Based Review on Herbal Remedies of Rosmarinus officinalis, Der. Pharm. Lett, 2016, 8, 426-436.
Ratheesh, M. Helen, A Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2007, 6, 1209-1211.
Malik, S.; Moraes, D.F.C.; Amaral, M.M.F.; Ribeiro, M.N.S. Ruta graveolens: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Biotechnology; Transgenesis and Secondary Metabolism, 2017, pp. 177-204.
Eidi, A.; Eidi, M. Antidiabetic effects of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Metab. Syndr., 2009, 3, 40-44.
Keshavarz, M.; Bidmeshkipour, A.; Mostafavi, A.; Mansouri, K.; Mohamadi-Motlagh, H. Anti tumour activity of Salvia officinalis is due to its anti-angiogenic, anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects. J. Cell., 2011, 12, 477-482.
Lopresti, A.L. Salvia (Sage): A Review of its Potential cognitive-enhancing and protective effects. Drugs R D., 2017, 17(1), 53-64.
[] [PMID: 27888449]
Karkanis, A.; Vellios, E.; Thomaidis, T. BIilalis, D.; Efthimiadou, A.; Travlos, I. Phytochemistry and Biological Properties of Burnet Weed (Sanguisorba spp.): A Review. Not. Sci. Biol., 2014, 6, 395-398.
Momtaz, S.; Abdollahi, M. A Systematic Review of the Biological Activities of Satureja L. Species. Pharmacologyonline, 2008, 2, 34-54.
Miladi, H.; Slama, R.B.; Mili, D.; Zouari, S.; Bakhrouf, A.; Ammar, E. Chemical composition and cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Satureja montana L. essential oil and its antibacterial potential against Salmonella spp. strains, J.Chem., 2013.
Tepe, B.; Cilkiz, M. A pharmacological and phytochemical overview on Satureja. Pharm. Biol., 2016, 54(3), 375-412.
[] [PMID: 25955956]
Carvalho, M.G.; Melo, A.G.N.; Aragão, C.F.S.; Raffin, F.N.; Moura, T.F.A.L. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: chemical composition, biological properties and toxicity. Rev. Bras. Plantas Med., 2013, 15(1)
Dos Santos, M.R.; Da Silva, J.H.; Caxito, M.L. Brief review on the medical uses and antimicrobial activity of different parts of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 7, 1-7.
Xu, H.; Yong-ping, W.Z.; Qing, H. In vitro antitumour activity of Sesamum indicum Linn flower extracts. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 2010, 9, 455-462.
Kumar, M.; Anjoo, K.; Sidhraj, S. Hepatoprotective activity of Sesamum indicum Linn. against Ccl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Arch., 2011, 2, 710-715.
Zhu, M.; Yuan, H.; Guo, W.; Li, X.; Jin, L.; Brunk, U.T.; Han, J.; Zhao, M.; Lu, Y. Dietary mustard seeds (Sinapis alba Linn) suppress 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced immuno-imbalance and colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Nutr. Cancer, 2012, 64(3), 464-472.
[] [PMID: 22420317]
Quassinti, L.; Maggi, F.; Barboni, L.; Ricciutelli, M.; Cortese, M.; Papa, F.; Garulli, C.; Kalogris, C.; Vittori, S.; Bramucci, M. Wild celery (Smyrnium olusatrum L.) oil and isofuranodiene induce apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells. Fitoterapia, 2014, 97, 133-141.
[] [PMID: 24924290]
Bhowmik, D.; Samptah Kumar, K.P.; Yadav, A.; Srivastava, S.; Paswan, S.; Dutta, A.S. Recent trends in Indian traditional herbs Syzygium aromaticum and its health benefits. J. Pharm. Phyto., 2012, 1, 13-22.
Mittal, M.; Gupta, N.; Parashar, P.; Mehra, V.; Khatri, M. Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological activity of Syzygium aromaticum: a comprehensive review. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 6, 67-72.
Sadia, S.; Khalid, S.; Qureshi, R.; Bajwa, A.A. Tagetes minuta L., a useful underutilized plant of family Asteraceae: a review. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 2013, 19, 179-189.
Soule, J.A. Tagetes minuta: A potential new herb from South New crops; Janick, J.; Simon, J.E., Eds.; Wiley: New York, 1993, pp. 649-654.
Cock, I.E. The phytochemistry and chemotherapeutic potential of Tasmannia lanceolata (Tasmanian pepper): A review. Pharmacogn. Commun., 2013, 3, 1-13.
Prasanth, R.V.; Vital, R. K.; Varsha, P.V.; Satyam, S. Review on Thymus vulgaris Traditional Uses and Pharmacological Properties. Med. Aromat. Plants, 2014, 3, 164.
Hosseinzadeh, S.; Kukhdan, A.J.; Hosseini, A.; Armand, R. The Application of Thymus vulgaris in Traditional and Modern Medicine: A Review. Glob. J. Pharmacol., 2015, 3, 260-266.
Mannan, A.; Inayatullah, S.; Akhtar, Z.M. Qayyum, M.; Mirza, B. Biological evaluation of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum). Pharm. Biol., 2009, 47, 628-633.
Jarić, S.; Mitrović, M.; Pavlović, P. Review of ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological study of thymus serpyllum L. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med.,, 2015, 10
Toppo, F.A.; Akhand, R.; Pathak, A.K. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Trigonella foenum-graecum: A review. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 2009, 2, 29-38.
Srinivasan, K. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): A Review of Health Beneficial Physiological Effects. Food Rev. Int., 2006, 22, 203-224.
Chauhan, B.; Kumar, G.; Ali, M. A Review on phytochemical constituents and activities of Trachyspermum ammi sprague fruits. Am. J. Pharm. Tech. Res., 2012, 2, 330-340.
Singh, B.; Kale, R.K. Chemomodulatory effect of Trachyspermum ammi on murine skin and forestomach papillomagenesis. Nutr. Cancer, 2010, 62(1), 74-84.
[] [PMID: 20043262]
Menon, S.; Nayeem, N. Vanilla planifolia: A review of a plant commonly used as flavouring agent. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2013, 20, 225-228.
De Martino, L.; Iorio, M.; Coppola, G.; Campana, A.; Savastano, C.; Fusco, B.M.; De Feo, V. Verbena officinalis essential oil as apoptotic inductor in leukocytes of healthy subjects and chronic myeloid leukemic patients. Pharmacologyonline, 2008, 2, 170-175.
Miraj, S.; Kiani, S. Study of pharmacological effect of Verbena officinalis Linn: A review. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8, 321-325.
Bakarnga-Via, I.; Hzounda, J.B.; Fokou, P.V.; Tchokouaha, L.R.; Gary-Bobo, M.; Gallud, A.; Garcia, M.; Walbadet, L.; Secka, Y.; Dongmo, P.M.; Boyom, F.F.; Menut, C. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14, 125.
[] [PMID: 24708588]
Erhirhie, E.O.; Moke, G.E. Xylopia aethiopica. a review of its ethnomedicinal, chemical and pharmacological properties Am. J. Pharmtech Res, 2014.
Tang, W.; Xie, Q.; Guan, J.; Jin, S.; Zhao, Y. Phytochemical profiles and biological activity evaluation of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed against asthma in murine models. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 152(3), 444-450.
[] [PMID: 24495470]
Yang, Q.; Cao, W.; Zhou, X.; Cao, W.; Xie, Y.; Wang, S. Anti-thrombotic effects of α-linolenic acid isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seeds. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14, 348.
[] [PMID: 25252789]
Medhi, K.; Deka, M.; Bhau, B.S. The genus Zanthoxylum - a stockpile of biological and ethnomedicinal properties. OMICS, 2013, 2, 697-704.
Lee, S.J.; Lim, K.T. Glycoprotein of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC has a hepatoprotective effect via anti-oxidative character in vivo and in vitro. Toxicol. In Vitro, 2008, 22(2), 376-385.
[] [PMID: 18022343]
Ghosh, A.K.; Banerjee, S.; Mullick, H.I.; Banerjee, J. Zingiber officinale: a natural gold. Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci., 2011, 2, 283-294.
Ali, B.H.; Blunden, G.; Tanira, M.O.; Nemmar, A. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2008, 46(2), 409-420.
[ ] [PMID: 17950516]
Grzanna, R.; Lindmark, L.; Frondoza, C.G. Ginger-an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions.RMG Biosciences, Inc. J. Med. Food, 2005, 8, 125-132.
[] [PMID: 16117603]
Surh, Y.J. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2002, 40(8), 1091-1097.
[] [PMID: 12067569]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy