Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system with still unknown etiology. Infiltration, accumulation and activation of autoreactive T cells, macrophages and other inflammatory immune cells in the CNS are the crucial steps in MS neuropathogenesis and development. Chemokines and their receptors play the main role in the attraction of the pathogenic cells into the CNS in MS. Specific chemokines and chemokine receptors are up-regulated in the actively demyelinating lesions and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. Many medical studies investigated how changes in levels or activities of chemokines and their receptors are implicated in leukocyte migration into CNS and consequently causing MS. These chemokines and their receptors are under intense focus to introduce new therapeutic strategies for MS.
Conclusion: The aim of this review is to summarize previous findings on the relationship between chemokines network and MS development. Furthermore, opportunities and challenges in the chemokine system intervention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MS will be outlined.