Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family have 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Studies have increasingly found that TRAF6 is closely related to central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, Traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases and neuropathic pain. Further research on the pathophysiological mechanism may be expected to become the new targets for the treatment of central nervous system diseases.