Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and a major factor associated with foot ulcers and amputations in patients with diabetes. Diagnosing diabetic neuropathy in early stages may reduce the risk for comorbidities. However, it still represents a major challenge for the healthcare providers, despite the complexity of available techniques. Discovering new serum biomarkers, useful for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy and monitoring the disease progression is of growing interest for the scientific research. In this regard, the field of proteomics is extremely promising. Mass spectrometry technology and bioinformatic analysis of proteomic data accelerated the detection of biomarkers related to peripheral nervous system pathology. Herein, we analyze what role proteomics approaches play in the modern diagnostic strategy of diabetic neuropathy.