Background: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health and is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, associated with lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease and cardiovascular disease.Aim: The analysis of the influence of tobacco smoking on pathology of the anterior segment of the eye in adults and children. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, was published during the period 2000-2016. Results: In adults, tobacco smoking is associated with hyperopia, delayed corneal epithelial healing and progression of Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy. Smoking is a strong risk factor for age-related nuclear cataract. However, smoking is not associated with pterygium, and its influence on dry eye symptoms, central corneal thickness and progression of primary open glaucoma remains controversial. Smoking during pregnancy increases risk of convergent or divergent strabismus or poor stereo acuity, however, its influence on anophtalmia, microphtalmia, amblyopia and hyperopic refractive error is controversial. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases of anterior eye segment leading to visual impairment in adults and children.