Neutrophils are highly motile phagocytic cells that constitute the first line of defense of the innate immune system. Unlike the other innate immune cells, mature neutrophils fully equipped with an armory of granules are short lived cells which are differentiated and programmed from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. In blood, mature or nearly mature cells are devoid of proliferative potential. While the killing mechanisms of neutrophils have been the research focus in the past, attention was then directed toward granulocytopoiesis by the recent studies about the specfic functional states and exact regulatory mechanisms in neutrophil development and homeostasis. Here, we focus on the recent findings regarding the mechanisms that control the generation and homeostasis of neutrophils.