The nervous system is a unique network of different cell types and comprises a variety of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that have an important interplay with all major organs in the body. Homeostatic regulation of nervous tissue turnover must be carefully controlled, taking into account interactions of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Clinical conditions affecting the nervous system range from mild cognitive perturbations such as headache, to life-threatening acute courses such as meningitis and glioblastoma, and to chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. One unifying feature in normal developmental or homeostatic functions and clinical dysfunctions within the nervous system is redox regulation, with an imbalance in oxidative/carbonyl stress versus antioxidants being characteristic of pathological conditions. In this review we consider the state of current knowledge regarding structural, genetic, proteomic, histopathological, clinical, and therapeutic perspectives of oxidative and carbonyl stress within the nervous system.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, advanced glycation endproducts, advanced oxidation protein products, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, Carbonyl stress, glycoxidation, lipoxidation, AGE, AOPP, carboxymethyllysine, pyrraline, pentosidine, imidazolones, malondialdehyde, 4-HNE, oxLDL, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy bodies disease, DLBD, Acrolein, RAGE, chronic inflammation, ALE, AGV-V, hypoxia, Rac/Cdc42 pathway, Galectin-3, HMGB1, S100, Amyloid A Peptide, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, EAE, MCP-1, Progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, 8-OHdG, HD, ALS, Niemann-Pick diseases, Friedreich's Ataxia, Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy, Dementia with Lewy Body Syndrome, Schizophrenia/Bipolar Disorder, Epilepsy, Down's Syndrome, Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Radiation-Induced Brain Injury, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, AGING, Pelizaeus, Merzbacher diseas, AGE Inhibition, SH-SY5Y, AGE-RAGE Blockade, sRAGE therapy, fenofibrate, pioglitazone, tanshinone, Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE