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Current Enzyme Inhibition

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4080
ISSN (Online): 1875-6662

Review Article

Enzyme Inhibition in Managing Cardiovascular Diseases

Author(s): Shivendra Kumar*, Sunam Saha, Arockia Babu, Mohit Agrawal, Kuldeep Singh, Hema Chaudhary and Khushboo Lavania

Volume 20, Issue 2, 2024

Published on: 25 January, 2024

Page: [109 - 123] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/0115734080275060231228093149

Price: $65

Abstract

Enzyme inhibition stands as a crucial strategy in tackling cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), countering their significant global impact on health. Targeting key enzymes involved in critical disease pathways has emerged as a pivotal pharmacological approach across various cardiovascular conditions. In hypertension, ACE inhibitors effectively lower blood pressure by impeding the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, promoting vasodilation and reducing cardiac workload. CAD management often involves statins, which competitively inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase, thereby lowering cholesterol levels and curbing plaque formation in coronary arteries. For heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors combined with ARBs exhibit promise by preserving beneficial peptides, supporting heart function and regulating fluid balance. Aspirin, an irreversible COX enzyme inhibitor, reduces platelet aggregation, mitigating thromboxane A2 formation and lowering the risk of clot-related complications in atherosclerosis. Managing dyslipidemia involves drugs like ezetimibe, targeting cholesterol absorption in the intestines and reducing LDL cholesterol levels. However, administering these drugs mandates careful consideration of patient-specific factors, potential side effects, and contraindications. Integrating lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise remains integral to CVD management. The potential of enzyme inhibition in disrupting disease pathways and addressing key factors in CVD progression is evident. Yet, it necessitates ongoing research for refining existing therapies and developing novel inhibitors to augment cardiovascular outcomes and elevate patients' quality of life.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, enzyme inhibition, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), platelet aggregation.

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