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New Emirates Medical Journal

Editor-in-Chief
ISSN (Online): 0250-6882

Systematic Review Article

Losartan: A Pharmacotherapy in Cardiovascular Disease

Author(s): Zahra Tolou Ghamari*

Volume 5, 2024

Published on: 06 October, 2023

Article ID: e080823219529 Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/0250688204666230808150829

open_access

Abstract

Background: A recently published article confirmed that in 2019, around 523 million people suffered from cardiovascular disease (including 18.6 million deaths) worldwide. Losartan, a drug, was patented 35 years ago and approved for medical use in the United States in 1995 (28 years ago). As an effective treatment for hypertension, losartan blocks the interaction of angiotensin II with its receptor by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system.

Objective: This article aims to review the available literature and recent studies demonstrating the efficacy, safety, mechanism of action and drug-drug interactions of losartan in cardiovascular disease.

Methods: This is a focused literature review with the keywords relevant to the terms performed in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science through May 28, 2023, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Based on the PICO standard format, fifty-two relevant in-depth consequent guide approaches and evidence-based choices were selected associated with a knowledgeable collection of current, high-quality manuscripts.

Results: After oral administration, time to reach maximum concentration is about 1-2 hours. With a 78% binding to protein, it has a bioavailability of 25-35%. Losartan is not removed by hemodialysis. For the full effect to occur, it may take up to 6 weeks. The drug is mainly prescribed for patients with high blood pressure, diabetic nephropathy, hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The publication reported higher drug exposures and adverse reactions in women than men with antihypertensive medications. Losartan could improve changes in gut microbiota that might be associated with hypertension. In the high-risk group of renal transplant recipients with arterial hypertension, research reported wellcontrolled blood pressure with losartan monotherapy.

Conclusion: In addition to the major losartan interactions with captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and lithium, there are moderate interactions with aspirin, pregabalin, alprazolam, amitriptyline, baclofen, betamethasone, buspirone. Muscle cramps, respiratory infection, cough, hyperkalemia, anemia and stuffy nose are the main reported side effects. As polypharmacy could hide pharmacokinetics interaction due to cytochrome P450, therefore, the combination of losartan with drugs such as phenobarbital, rifampin or fluconazole needs vigilant attention regarding therapeutic drug monitoring.

Keywords: Losartan, Cardiovascular disease, Pharmacotherapy, Side-effects, Interactions, Renin-angiotensin system.


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