Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Delivery


ISSN (Print): 1567-2018
ISSN (Online): 1875-5704

Review Article

Current Landscape of Therapeutics for the Management of Hypertension - A Review

Author(s): Neda Fatima, Sumel Ashique*, Aakash Upadhyay, Shubneesh Kumar, Himanshu Kumar, Nitish Kumar and Prashant Kumar

Volume 21, Issue 5, 2024

Published on: 07 July, 2023

Page: [662 - 682] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/1567201820666230623121433

Price: $65


Hypertension is a critical health problem. It is also the primary reason for coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal vascular disease. The use of herbal drugs in the management of any disease is increasing. They are considered the best immune booster to fight against several types of diseases. To date, the demand for herbal drugs has been increasing because of their excellent properties. This review highlights antihypertensive drugs, polyphenols, and synbiotics for managing hypertension. Evidence is mounting in favour of more aggressive blood pressure control with reduced adverse effects, especially for specific patient populations. This review aimed to present contemporary viewpoints and novel treatment options, including cutting-edge technological applications and emerging interventional and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as key concerns arising from several years of research and epidemiological observations related to the management of hypertension.

Keywords: Hypertension, synthetic drugs, synbiotics, polyphenols, future aspects, chronically high blood pressure.

Graphical Abstract
Paulis, L.; Unger, T. Novel therapeutic targets for hypertension. Nat. Rev. Cardiol., 2010, 7(8), 431-441.
[] [PMID: 20567239]
Oparil, S.; Schmieder, R.E. New approaches in the treatment of hypertension. Circ. Res., 2015, 116(6), 1074-1095.
[] [PMID: 25767291]
Stamler, R. Implications of the INTERSALT study. Hypertension, 1991, 17(1)(Suppl.), I16-I20.
[PMID: 1986996]
Mills, K.T.; Stefanescu, A.; He, J. The global epidemiology of hypertension. Nat. Rev. Nephrol., 2020, 16(4), 223-237.
[] [PMID: 32024986]
Drukteinis, J.S.; Roman, M.J.; Fabsitz, R.R.; Lee, E.T.; Best, L.G.; Russell, M.; Devereux, R.B. Cardiac and systemic hemodynamic characteristics of hypertension and prehypertension in adolescents and young adults: The Strong Heart Study. Circulation, 2007, 115(2), 221-227.
[] [PMID: 17210838]
Tsioufis, C.; Thomopoulos, C.; Kreutz, R. Treatment thresholds and targets in hypertension: Different readings of the same evidence? Hypertension, 2018, 71(6), 966-968.
[] [PMID: 29686019]
Thomopoulos, C.; Parati, G.; Zanchetti, A. Effects of blood pressure lowering on outcome incidence in hypertension. J. Hypertens., 2015, 33(2), 195-211.
[] [PMID: 25485720]
Turnbull, F.; Woodward, M.; Neal, B.; Barzi, F.; Ninomiya, T.; Chalmers, J.; Perkovic, V.; Li, N.; MacMahon, S. Do men and women respond differently to blood pressure-lowering treatment? Results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Eur. Heart J., 2008, 29(21), 2669-2680.
[] [PMID: 18852183]
Go, A.S.; Mozaffarian, D.; Roger, V.L.; Benjamin, E.J.; Berry, J.D.; Borden, W.B.; Bravata, D.M.; Dai, S.; Ford, E.S.; Fox, C.S.; Franco, S.; Fullerton, H.J.; Gillespie, C.; Hailpern, S.M.; Heit, J.A.; Howard, V.J.; Huffman, M.D.; Kissela, B.M.; Kittner, S.J.; Lackland, D.T.; Lichtman, J.H.; Lisabeth, L.D.; Magid, D.; Marcus, G.M.; Marelli, A.; Matchar, D.B.; McGuire, D.K.; Mohler, E.R.; Moy, C.S.; Mussolino, M.E.; Nichol, G.; Paynter, N.P.; Schreiner, P.J.; Sorlie, P.D.; Stein, J.; Turan, T.N.; Virani, S.S.; Wong, N.D.; Woo, D.; Turner, M.B. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2013, 127(1), e6-e245.
[] [PMID: 23239837]
Chobanian, A.V.; Bakris, G.L.; Black, H.R.; Cushman, W.C.; Green, L.A.; Izzo, J.L., Jr; Jones, D.W.; Materson, B.J.; Oparil, S.; Wright, J.T., Jr; Roccella, E.J. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report. JAMA, 2003, 289(19), 2560-2572.
[] [PMID: 12748199]
Harrap, S.B. Where are all the blood-pressure genes? Lancet, 2003, 361(9375), 2149-2151.
[] [PMID: 12826450]
Aronow, W.S. Lifestyle measures for treating hypertension. Arch. Med. Sci., 2017, 5(5), 1241-1243.
[] [PMID: 28883867]
Kitt, J.; Fox, R.; Tucker, K.L.; McManus, R.J. New approaches in hypertension management: A review of current and developing technologies and their potential impact on hypertension care. Curr. Hypertens. Rep., 2019, 21(6), 44.
[] [PMID: 31025117]
O’Donnell, M.; Mente, A.; Alderman, M.H.; Brady, A.J.B.; Diaz, R.; Gupta, R.; López-Jaramillo, P.; Luft, F.C.; Lüscher, T.F.; Mancia, G.; Mann, J.F.E.; McCarron, D.; McKee, M.; Messerli, F.H.; Moore, L.L.; Narula, J.; Oparil, S.; Packer, M.; Prabhakaran, D.; Schutte, A.; Sliwa, K.; Staessen, J.A.; Yancy, C.; Yusuf, S. Salt and cardiovascular disease: Insufficient evidence to recommend low sodium intake. Eur. Heart J., 2020, 41(35), 3363-3373.
[] [PMID: 33011774]
Greer, R.C.; Marklund, M.; Anderson, C.A.M.; Cobb, L.K.; Dalcin, A.T.; Henry, M.; Appel, L.J. Potassium-enriched salt substitutes as a means to lower blood pressure: Benefits and risks. Hypertension, 2020, 75(2), 266-274.
[] [PMID: 31838902]
Mori, T.A. Omega-3 fatty acids and blood pressure. Cell. Mol. Biol., 2010, 56(1), 83-92.
[PMID: 20196972]
Appel, L.J.; Sacks, F.M.; Carey, V.J.; Obarzanek, E.; Swain, J.F.; Miller, E.R., III; Conlin, P.R.; Erlinger, T.P.; Rosner, B.A.; Laranjo, N.M.; Charleston, J.; McCarron, P.; Bishop, L.M. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: Results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA, 2005, 294(19), 2455-2464.
[] [PMID: 16287956]
Appel, L.J.; Brands, M.W.; Daniels, S.R.; Karanja, N.; Elmer, P.J.; Sacks, F.M. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension, 2006, 47(2), 296-308.
[] [PMID: 16434724]
Sciarrone, S.E.G.; Beilin, L.J.; Rouse, I.L.; Rogers, P.B. A factorial study of salt restriction and a low-fat/high-fibre diet in hypertensive subjects. J. Hypertens., 1992, 10(3), 287-298.
[] [PMID: 1315827]
Wallace, J.P. Exercise in Hypertension. Sports Med., 2003, 33(8), 585-598.
[] [PMID: 12797840]
Peele, S.; Brodsky, A. Exploring psychological benefits associated with moderate alcohol use: A necessary corrective to assessments of drinking outcomes? Drug Alcohol Depend., 2000, 60(3), 221-247.
[] [PMID: 11053757]
Tyagi, A.; Cohen, M. Yoga and hypertension: A systematic review. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 2014, 20(2), 32-59.
[PMID: 24657958]
Beevers, G.; Lip, G.Y.; O’Brien, E. The pathophysiology of hypertension. BMJ, 2001, 322(7291), 912-916.
Izzo, J.L., Jr; Taylor, A.A. The sympathetic nervous system and baroreflexes in hypertension and hypotension. Curr. Hypertens. Rep., 1999, 1(3), 254-263.
[] [PMID: 10981075]
Tabassum, N.; Ahmad, F. Role of natural herbs in the treatment of hypertension. Pharmacogn. Rev., 2011, 5(9), 30-40.
[] [PMID: 22096316]
Kimura, I. Medical benefits of using natural compounds and their derivatives having multiple pharmacological actions. Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006, 126(3), 133-143.
[] [PMID: 16508237]
Phing, T.C. A retrospective cohort study on the efficacy of homeopathy compared to homeopathy plus conventional medicine in the treatment of hypertension. Homeopathy, 2016, 105(1), 11-12.
Han, K.; Shin, I.C.; Choi, K.J.; Yun, Y.P.; Hong, J.T.; Oh, K.W. Korea red ginseng water extract increases nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled breath. Nitric Oxide, 2005, 12(3), 159-162.
[] [PMID: 15797844]
Kim, N.D.; Kim, I.C. Studies on hypotensive mechanism of ginseng components. Korean J. Pharmacogn., 1978, 9(1), 41-47.
Rabia, A.; Mohammad, Z.A.; Aidiahmad, D.; Muhammad, I.U. Sources and possible mechanisms of action of important phytoconstituents with cardiovascular properties. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2012, 6(9), 563-580.
Cock, I.E. The genus aloe: Phytochemistry and therapeutic uses including treatments for gastrointestinal conditions and chronic inflammation. Prog. Drug Res., 2015, 70, 179-235.
Choudhary, M.; Kochhar, A.; Sangha, J. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Aloe vera L. in non-insulin dependent diabetics. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2014, 51(1), 90-96.
[] [PMID: 24426052]
Martí, N; Mena, P; Cánovas, JA; Micol, V; Saura, D Vitamin C and the role of citrus juices as functional food. Natural product communications, 2009, 4(5), 1934578X0900400506.
Assini, J.M.; Mulvihill, E.E.; Huff, M.W. Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism. Curr. Opin. Lipidol., 2013, 24(1), 34-40.
[] [PMID: 23254473]
Verma, S.K.; Jain, V.; Singh, D.P. Effect of Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) on blood lipids, fibrinolysis and total antioxidant status in patients with ischemic heart disease. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 2012, 2, S739-S743.
Cloud, A.; Vilcins, D.; McEwen, B. The effect of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) on blood pressure: A systematic review. Adv. Integr. Med., 2020, 7(3), 167-175.
Furey, A.; Tassell, M.C.; Kingston, R.; Gilroy, D.; Lehane, M. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Pharmacogn. Rev., 2010, 4(7), 32-41.
[] [PMID: 22228939]
Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Umegaki, K.; Saito, K.; Tabuchi, M.; Tomita, T. Preventive effects of green tea catechins on spontaneous stroke in rats. Med. Sci. Monit., 2007, 13(2), BR40-BR45.
[PMID: 17261979]
Njelekela, M.; Yamori, Y.; Negishi, H.; Xu, J-W.; Ikeda, K.; Nara, Y. Black and green tea polyphenols attenuate blood pressure increases in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Nutr., 2004, 134(1), 38-42.
[] [PMID: 14704290]
Khairullah, A.R.; Solikhah, T.I.; Ansori, A.N.; Hidayatullah, A.R.; Hartadi, E.B.; Ram, S.C.; Fadholly, A. Review on the pharmacological and health aspects of apium graveolens or celery: An update. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy., 2021, 12(2), 595-601.
Alimohammadi, S.; Hobbenaghi, R.; Javanbakht, J.; Kheradmand, D.; Mortezaee, R.; Tavakoli, M.; Khadivar, F.; Akbari, H. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Protective and antidiabetic effects of extract from Nigella sativa on blood glucose concentrations against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic in rats: An experimental study with histopathological evaluation. Diagn. Pathol., 2013, 8(1), 137.
[] [PMID: 23947821]
Murugesan, S.; Rajeshkannan, C.; Sumathi, R.; Manivachakam, P.; Suresh Babu, D. Bioactivity of root hexane extract of Coleus forskohlii Briq. Labiatae: GC/MS/MS characterization and identification. Eur. J. Exp. Biol., 2012, 2, 1469-1473.
Kanne, H.; Prasanna, V.; Burte, N.P.; Gujjula, R. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract. Pharmacognosy Res., 2015, 7(3), 237-241.
[] [PMID: 26130934]
Nicholson, J.P.; Resnick, L.M.; Laragh, J. Calcium channel blockade: An alternative to diuretic therapy. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 1986, 21(S2)(Suppl. 2), 161S-164S.
[] [PMID: 3756059]
Sethiya, N.; Trivedi, A.; Patel, M.; Mishra, S.H. Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India. J. Adv. Pharm. Technol. Res., 2010, 1(4), 388-395.
[] [PMID: 22247878]
Selye, H. Effect of corticoids upon skeletal and renal changes produced by stylomycin aminonucleoside. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 1957, 96(2), 544-547.
[] [PMID: 13485159]
Singh, D.K.; Kumar, N.; Sachan, A.; Lakhani, P.; Tutu, S.; Shankar, P.; Nath, R.; Sachan, A.K.; Dixit, R.K. An experimental study to see the antihypertensive effects of gymnema sylvestre and acorus calamus in wistar rats and its comparison with amlodipine. Asian J. Med. Sci., 2017, 8(3), 11-15.
Sharma, V.; Sharma, R.; Gautam, D.; Kuca, K.; Nepovimova, E.; Martins, N. Role of Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) in neurological and metabolic disorders: Evidence from ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical study. J. Clin. Med., 2020, 9(4), 1176.
[] [PMID: 32325895]
Shah, A.J.; Gilani, A.H. Blood pressure-lowering and vascular modulator effects of Acorus calamus extract are mediated through multiple pathways. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 2009, 54(1), 38-46.
[] [PMID: 19528816]
Mishra, S.; Aeri, V.; Gaur, P.K.; Jachak, S.M. Phytochemical, therapeutic, and ethnopharmacological overview for a traditionally important herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn. BioMed research international, 2014, 2014, 808302.
Ghuraiya, S.; Mandal, S.K. Clinical Study To Evaluate The Efficacy Of Punarnava Churna On Vyana Bala Vaishamya (hypertension). Int. J. Ayurveda Pharma Res., 2018, 6(8), 1-20.
Bartolome, A.P.; Villaseñor, I.M. Yang, WC Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): Botanical properties, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, 2013, 2013, 340215.
Dimo, T.; Rakotonirina, S.V.; Tan, P.V.; Azay, J.; Dongo, E.; Cros, G. Leaf methanol extract of Bidens pilosa prevents and attenuates the hypertension induced by high-fructose diet in Wistar rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 83(3), 183-191.
[] [PMID: 12426085]
Chiang, Y.M.; Chang, C.L.T.; Chang, S.L.; Yang, W.C.; Shyur, L.F. Cytopiloyne, a novel polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, functions as a T helper cell modulator. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 110(3), 532-538.
[] [PMID: 17101254]
Ajay, M.; Chai, H.J.; Mustafa, A.M.; Gilani, A.H.; Mustafa, M.R. Mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 109(3), 388-393.
[] [PMID: 16973321]
Sarr, M.; Ngom, S.; Kane, M.O.; Wele, A.; Diop, D.; Sarr, B.; Gueye, L.; Andriantsitohaina, R.; Diallo, A.S. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta. Nutr. Metab. (Lond.), 2009, 6(1), 45.
[] [PMID: 19883513]
Odigie, I.P.; Ettarh, R.R.; Adigun, S.A. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa attenuates hypertension and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2003, 86(2-3), 181-185.
[] [PMID: 12738084]
Jabeur, I.; Pereira, E.; Barros, L.; Calhelha, R.C. Soković M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a source of nutrients, bioactive compounds and colouring agents. Food Res. Int., 2017, 100(Pt 1), 717-723.
[] [PMID: 28873741]
Da-Costa-Rocha, I.; Bonnlaender, B.; Sievers, H.; Pischel, I.; Heinrich, M. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food Chem., 2014, 165, 424-443.
[] [PMID: 25038696]
Ashraf, R.; Khan, R.A.; Ashraf, I.; Qureshi, A.A. Effects of Allium sativum (garlic) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2013, 26(5), 859-863.
[PMID: 24035939]
Chan, T.Y.K. Aconite poisoning. Clin. Toxicol. (Phila.), 2009, 47(4), 279-285.
[] [PMID: 19514874]
Hong, Y.J.; Kim, N.; Lee, K.; Hee Sonn, C.; Eun Lee, J.; Tae Kim, S.; Ho Baeg, I.; Lee, K.M. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) ameliorates type 1 diabetes and restores immune cell compartments. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2012, 144(2), 225-233.
[] [PMID: 22925946]
Kato, Y.; Domoto, T.; Hiramitsu, M.; Katagiri, T.; Sato, K.; Miyake, Y.; Aoi, S.; Ishihara, K.; Ikeda, H.; Umei, N.; Takigawa, A.; Harada, T. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking. J. Nutr. Metab., 2014, 2014, 1-6.
[] [PMID: 24818015]
Verma, S.K.; Jain, V.; Katewa, S.S. Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 2009, 46(6), 503-506. Available From:
Mahdavi-Roshan, M.; Salari, A.; Ghorbani, Z.; Ashouri, A. The effects of regular consumption of green or black tea beverage on blood pressure in those with elevated blood pressure or hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement. Ther. Med., 2020, 51, 102430.
[] [PMID: 32507441]
Umar, D.; Ali, A.; Farhan, M.; Basheer, B.; Baroudi, K. Effect of Brahmyadi churna (brahmi, shankhapushpi, jatamansi, jyotishmati, vacha, ashwagandha) and tablet shilajatu in essential hypertension: An observational study. J. Adv. Pharm. Technol. Res., 2015, 6(4), 148-153.
[] [PMID: 26605154]
Choi, J.S.; Nurul Islam, M.; Yousof Ali, M.; Kim, E.J.; Kim, Y.M.; Jung, H.A. Effects of C-glycosylation on anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2014, 64, 27-33.
[] [PMID: 24291393]
Davinelli, S.; Scapagnini, G. Polyphenols: A promising nutritional approach to prevent or reduce the progression of prehypertension. High Blood Press. Cardiovasc. Prev., 2016, 23(3), 197-202.
[] [PMID: 27115149]
Theodotou, M.; Fokianos, K.; Mouzouridou, A.; Konstantinou, C.; Aristotelous, A.; Prodromou, D.; Chrysikou, A. The effect of resveratrol on hypertension: A clinical trial. Exp. Ther. Med., 2017, 13(1), 295-301.
[] [PMID: 28123505]
Igarashi, K.; Honma, K.; Yoshinari, O.; Nanjo, F.; Hara, Y. Effects of dietary catechins on glucose tolerance, blood pressure and oxidative status in Goto-Kakizaki rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 2007, 53(6), 496-500.
[] [PMID: 18202537]
Wunpathe, C.; Potue, P.; Maneesai, P.; Bunbupha, S.; Prachaney, P.; Kukongviriyapan, U.; Kukongviriyapan, V.; Pakdeechote, P. Hesperidin suppresses renin-angiotensin system mediated NOX2 over-expression and sympathoexcitation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2018, 46(4), 751-767.
[] [PMID: 29754503]
Morand, C.; Dubray, C.; Milenkovic, D.; Lioger, D.; Martin, J.F.; Scalbert, A.; Mazur, A. Hesperidin contributes to the vascular protective effects of orange juice: A randomized crossover study in healthy volunteers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2011, 93(1), 73-80.
[] [PMID: 21068346]
Larson, A.; Symons, J.D.; Jalili, T. Quercetin: A treatment for hypertension?—A review of efficacy and mechanisms. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2010, 3(1), 237-250.
[] [PMID: 27713250]
Serban, M.C.; Sahebkar, A.; Zanchetti, A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Howard, G.; Antal, D.; Andrica, F.; Ahmed, A.; Aronow, W.S.; Muntner, P.; Lip, G.Y.H.; Graham, I.; Wong, N.; Rysz, J.; Banach, M. Effects of quercetin on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Am. Heart Assoc., 2016, 5(7), e002713.
[] [PMID: 27405810]
Galleano, M.; Bernatova, I.; Puzserova, A.; Balis, P.; Sestakova, N.; Pechanova, O.; Fraga, C.G. (-)-Epicatechin reduces blood pressure and improves vasorelaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats by NO-mediated mechanism. IUBMB Life, 2013, 65(8), 710-715.
[] [PMID: 23847022]
Estruch, R.; Ros, E.; Martínez-González, M.A. Mediterranean diet for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 2013, 369(7), 676-677.
[] [PMID: 23944307]
Medina-Remón, A.; Casas, R.; Tressserra-Rimbau, A.; Ros, E.; Martínez-González, M.A.; Fitó, M.; Corella, D.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Lamuela-Raventos, R.M.; Estruch, R. Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: A substudy of the PREDIMED trial. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2017, 83(1), 114-128.
[] [PMID: 27100393]
Grosso, G.; Stepaniak, U.; Micek, A.; Stefler, D.; Bobak, M. Pająk, A. Dietary polyphenols are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Polish adults of the HAPIEE study. Eur. J. Nutr., 2017, 56(4), 1409-1420.
[] [PMID: 26913852]
Psaltopoulou, T.; Naska, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Mountokalakis, T.; Trichopoulou, A. Olive oil, the Mediterranean diet, and arterial blood pressure: The Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 80(4), 1012-1018.
[] [PMID: 15447913]
Ras, R.T.; Zock, P.L.; Zebregs, Y.E.M.P.; Johnston, N.R.; Webb, D.J.; Draijer, R. Effect of polyphenol-rich grape seed extract on ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension. Br. J. Nutr., 2013, 110(12), 2234-2241.
[] [PMID: 23702253]
Mogollon, J.A.; Bujold, E.; Lemieux, S.; Bourdages, M.; Blanchet, C.; Bazinet, L.; Couillard, C.; Noël, M.; Dodin, S. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: A pilot, randomized controlled trial. Nutr. J., 2013, 12(1), 41.
[] [PMID: 23565841]
Nivsarkar, M.A.; Borse, S.P.; Singh, D.P.; Upadhyay, D.; Sharma, V. Probiotic use in the management of hypertension: A new era of therapeutic management. Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU), 2018, 11(3), 207. [KLEU].
Upadrasta, A.; Madempudi, R.S. Probiotics and blood pressure: Current insights. Integr. Blood Press. Control, 2016, 9, 33-42.
[PMID: 26955291]
Levrat-Verny, M.A.; Behr, S.; Mustad, V.; Rémésy, C.; Demigné, C. Low levels of viscous hydrocolloids lower plasma cholesterol in rats primarily by impairing cholesterol absorption. J. Nutr., 2000, 130(2), 243-248.
[] [PMID: 10720177]
Ange, B.A.; Appel, L.J. The effects of macronutrients and dietary patterns on blood pressure. Hypertension. Principles and Practice, 2005, 1, 169.
Saad, M.F.; Rewers, M.; Selby, J.; Howard, G.; Jinagouda, S.; Fahmi, S.; Zaccaro, D.; Bergman, R.N.; Savage, P.J.; Haffner, S.M. Insulin resistance and hypertension: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis study. Hypertension, 2004, 43(6), 1324-1331.
[] [PMID: 15123571]
Sheridan, P.O.; Bindels, L.B.; Saulnier, D.M.; Reid, G.; Nova, E.; Holmgren, K.; O’Toole, P.W.; Bunn, J.; Delzenne, N.; Scott, K.P. Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals? Gut Microbes, 5(1), 74-82.
Seppo, L. The effect of a Lactobacillus helveticus LBK-16 H fermented milk on hypertension-a pilot study on humans. Milchwissenschaft, 2001, 57, 124-127.
Sipola, M.; Finckenberg, P.; Santisteban, J.; Korpela, R.; Vapaatalo, H.; Nurminen, M.L. Long-term intake of milk peptides attenuates development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2001, 52(4 Pt 2), 745-754.
[PMID: 11785770]
Sharafedtinov, K.K.; Plotnikova, O.A.; Alexeeva, R.I.; Sentsova, T.B.; Songisepp, E.; Stsepetova, J.; Smidt, I.; Mikelsaar, M. Hypocaloric diet supplemented with probiotic cheese improves body mass index and blood pressure indices of obese hypertensive patients - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Nutr. J., 2013, 12(1), 138.
[] [PMID: 24120179]
Mizushima, S.; Ohshige, K.; Watanabe, J.; Kimura, M.; Kadowaki, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Tochikubo, O.; Ueshima, H. Randomized controlled trial of sour milk on blood pressure in borderline hypertensive men. Am. J. Hypertens., 2004, 17(8), 701-706.
[] [PMID: 15288885]
He, J.; Streiffer, R.H.; Muntner, P.; Krousel-Wood, M.A.; Whelton, P.K. Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure. J. Hypertens., 2004, 22(1), 73-80.
[] [PMID: 15106797]
Lee, Y.P.; Mori, T.A.; Puddey, I.B.; Sipsas, S.; Ackland, T.R.; Beilin, L.J.; Hodgson, J.M. Effects of lupin kernel flour-enriched bread on blood pressure: A controlled intervention study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2009, 89(3), 766-772.
[] [PMID: 19144734]
Burke, V.; Hodgson, J.M.; Beilin, L.J.; Giangiulioi, N.; Rogers, P.; Puddey, I.B. Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. Hypertension, 2001, 38(4), 821-826.
[] [PMID: 11641293]
Eliasson, K.; Ryttig, K.R.; Hylander, B.; Rössner, S. A dietary fibre supplement in the treatment of mild hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Hypertens., 1992, 10(2), 195-199.
[] [PMID: 1313484]
Keenan, J.M.; Pins, J.J.; Frazel, C.; Moran, A.; Turnquist, L. Oat ingestion reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild or borderline hypertension: A pilot trial. J. Fam. Pract., 2002, 51(4), 369.
[PMID: 11978262]
Kawamoto, T.; Mitsuuchi, Y.; Toda, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyahara, K.; Miura, S.; Ohnishi, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Nakao, K.; Imura, H. Role of steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase and steroid 18-hydroxylase in the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1992, 89(4), 1458-1462.
[] [PMID: 1741400]
Schumacher, C.D.; Steele, R.E.; Brunner, H.R. Aldosterone synthase inhibition for the treatment of hypertension and the derived mechanistic requirements for a new therapeutic strategy. J. Hypertens., 2013, 31(10), 2085-2093.
[] [PMID: 24107737]
Pitt, B.; Zannad, F.; Remme, W.J.; Cody, R.; Castaigne, A.; Perez, A.; Palensky, J.; Wittes, J. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N. Engl. J. Med., 1999, 341(10), 709-717.
[] [PMID: 10471456]
Colussi, G.; Catena, C.; Sechi, L.A. Spironolactone, eplerenone and the new aldosterone blockers in endocrine and primary hypertension. J. Hypertens., 2013, 31(1), 3-15.
[] [PMID: 23011526]
Garthwaite, S.M.; McMahon, E.G. The evolution of aldosterone antagonists. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 2004, 217(1-2), 27-31.
[] [PMID: 15134797]
Kolkhof, P.; Borden, S.A. Molecular pharmacology of the mineralocorticoid receptor: Prospects for novel therapeutics. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 2012, 350(2), 310-317.
[] [PMID: 21771637]
Dietz, J.D.; Du, S.; Bolten, C.W.; Payne, M.A.; Xia, C.; Blinn, J.R.; Funder, J.W.; Hu, X. A number of marketed dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist activity. Hypertension, 2008, 51(3), 742-748.
[] [PMID: 18250364]
Fagart, J.; Hillisch, A.; Huyet, J.; Bärfacker, L.; Fay, M.; Pleiss, U.; Pook, E.; Schäfer, S.; Rafestin-Oblin, M.E.; Kolkhof, P. A new mode of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by a potent and selective nonsteroidal molecule. J. Biol. Chem., 2010, 285(39), 29932-29940.
[] [PMID: 20650892]
Bärfacker, L.; Kuhl, A.; Hillisch, A.; Grosser, R.; Figueroa-Pérez, S.; Heckroth, H.; Nitsche, A.; Ergüden, J.K.; Gielen-Haertwig, H.; Schlemmer, K.H.; Mittendorf, J.; Paulsen, H.; Platzek, J.; Kolkhof, P. Discovery of BAY 94-8862: A nonsteroidal antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor for the treatment of cardiorenal diseases. ChemMedChem, 2012, 7(8), 1385-1403.
[] [PMID: 22791416]
Kolkhof, P.; Delbeck, M.; Kretschmer, A.; Steinke, W.; Hartmann, E.; Bärfacker, L.; Eitner, F.; Albrecht-Küpper, B.; Schäfer, S. Finerenone, a novel selective nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist protects from rat cardiorenal injury. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 2014, 64(1), 69-78.
[] [PMID: 24621652]
Flather, M.D.; Yusuf, S.; Køber, L.; Pfeffer, M.; Hall, A.; Murray, G.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Ball, S.; Pogue, J.; Moyé, L.; Braunwald, E. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: A systematic overview of data from individual patients. Lancet, 2000, 355(9215), 1575-1581.
[] [PMID: 10821360]
Regulski, M.; Regulska, K.; Stanisz, B.J.; Murias, M.; Gieremek, P.; Wzgarda, A.; Niznik, B. Chemistry and pharmacology of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2015, 21(13), 1764-1775.
[] [PMID: 25388457]
Slater, E.E.; Merrill, D.D.; Guess, H.A.; Roylance, P.J.; Cooper, W.D.; Inman, W.H.; Ewan, P.W. Clinical profile of angioedema associated with angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibition. JAMA, 1988, 260(7), 967-970.
[] [PMID: 2840522]
Ganten, D.; Hermann, K.; Bayer, C.; Unger, T.; Lang, R.E. Angiotensin synthesis in the brain and increased turnover in hypertensive rats. Science, 1983, 221(4613), 869-871.
[] [PMID: 6879184]
Gao, J.; Marc, Y.; Iturrioz, X.; Leroux, V.; Balavoine, F.; Llorens-Cortes, C. A new strategy for treating hypertension by blocking the activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system with aminopeptidase A inhibitors. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 2014, 127(3), 135-148.
[] [PMID: 24697296]
Réaux, A.; de Mota, N.; Zini, S.; Cadel, S.; Fournié-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.; Corvol, P.; Llorens-Cortès, C. PC18, a specific aminopeptidase N inhibitor, induces vasopressin release by increasing the half-life of brain angiotensin III. Neuroendocrinology, 1999, 69(5), 370-376.
[] [PMID: 10343178]
Marc, Y.; Gao, J.; Balavoine, F.; Michaud, A.; Roques, B.P.; Llorens-Cortes, C. Central antihypertensive effects of orally active aminopeptidase A inhibitors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension, 2012, 60(2), 411-418.
[] [PMID: 22710644]
Bodineau, L.; Frugière, A.; Marc, Y.; Claperon, C.; Llorens-Cortes, C. Aminopeptidase A inhibitors as centrally acting antihypertensive agents. Heart Fail. Rev., 2008, 13(3), 311-319.
[] [PMID: 18175217]
Linz, D.; Wirth, K.; Linz, W.; Heuer, H.O.O.; Frick, W.; Hofmeister, A.; Heinelt, U.; Arndt, P.; Schwahn, U.; Böhm, M.; Ruetten, H. Antihypertensive and laxative effects by pharmacological inhibition of sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 3-mediated sodium absorption in the gut. Hypertension, 2012, 60(6), 1560-1567.
[] [PMID: 23108657]
Spencer, A.G.; Labonte, E.D.; Rosenbaum, D.P.; Plato, C.F.; Carreras, C.W.; Leadbetter, M.R.; Kozuka, K.; Kohler, J.; Koo-McCoy, S.; He, L.; Bell, N.; Tabora, J.; Joly, K.M.; Navre, M.; Jacobs, J.W.; Charmot, D. Intestinal inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 prevents cardiorenal damage in rats and inhibits Na+ uptake in humans. Sci. Transl. Med., 2014, 6(227), 227ra36.
[] [PMID: 24622516]
Dey, S.K.; Saini, M.; Prabhakar, P.; Kundu, S. Dopamine β hydroxylase as a potential drug target to combat hypertension. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs, 2020, 29(9), 1043-1057.
[] [PMID: 32658551]
Dickstein, K.; de Voogd, H.J.; Miric, M.P.; Willenbrock, R.; Mitrovic, V.; Pacher, R.; Koopman, P.A. Effect of single doses of SLV306, an inhibitor of both neutral endopeptidase and endothelin-converting enzyme, on pulmonary pressures in congestive heart failure. Am. J. Cardiol., 2004, 94(2), 237-239.
[] [PMID: 15246912]
Thöne-Reinke, C.; Simon, K.; Richter, C.M.; Godes, M.; Neumayer, H.H.; Thormählen, D.; Hocher, B. Inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and endothelin-converting enzyme by SLV306 reduces proteinuria and urinary albumin excretion in diabetic rats. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology-Supplements., 2004, 44(1)(Suppl. 1), S76-S79.
[] [PMID: 15838365]
Cerdeira, A.S.; Brás-Silva, C.; Leite-Moreira, A.F. Endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitors: Their application in cardiovascular diseases. Rev. Port. Cardiol., 2008, 27(3), 385-408.
Seed, A.; Kuc, R.E.; Maguire, J.J.; Hillier, C.; Johnston, F.; Essers, H.; de Voogd, H.J.; McMurray, J.; Davenport, A.P. The dual endothelin converting enzyme/neutral endopeptidase inhibitor SLV-306 (daglutril), inhibits systemic conversion of big endothelin-1 in humans. Life Sci., 2012, 91(13-14), 743-748.
[] [PMID: 22480515]
Tikkanen, I.; Tikkanen, T.; Cao, Z.; Allen, T.J.; Davis, B.J.; Lassila, M.; Casley, D.; Johnston, C.I.; Burrell, L.M.; Cooper, M.E. Combined inhibition of neutral endopeptidase with angiotensin converting enzyme or endothelin converting enzyme in experimental diabetes. J. Hypertens., 2002, 20(4), 707-714.
[] [PMID: 11910307]
Candelario-Jalil, E. Injury and repair mechanisms in ischemic stroke: Considerations for the development of novel neurotherapeutics. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs, 2009, 10(7), 644-654.
[PMID: 19579170]
Helmer, O.M. Studies on renin antibodies. Circulation, 1958, 17(4), 648-652.
[] [PMID: 13523774]
Michel, J.B.; Guettier, C.; Reade, R.; Sayah, S.; Corvol, P.; Ménard, J. Immunologic approaches to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system: A review. Am. Heart J., 1989, 117(3), 756-767.
[] [PMID: 2537558]
Hong, F.; Quan, W.Y.; Pandey, R.; Yi, S.; Chi, L.; Xia, L.Z.; Yuan, M.; Ming, L. A vaccine for hypertension based on peptide AngI-R: A pilot study. Int. J. Cardiol., 2011, 148(1), 76-84.
[] [PMID: 19932924]
Downham, M.R.; Auton, T.R.; Rosul, A.; Sharp, H.L.; Sjöström, L.; Rushton, A.; Richards, J.P.; Mant, T.G.K.; Gardiner, S.M.; Bennett, T.; Glover, J.F. Evaluation of two carrier protein-angiotensin I conjugate vaccines to assess their future potential to control high blood pressure (hypertension) in man. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2003, 56(5), 505-512.
[] [PMID: 14651724]
Brown, M.J.; Coltart, J.; Gunewardena, K.; Ritter, J.M.; Auton, T.R.; Glover, J.F. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of an angiotensin immunotherapeutic vaccine (PMD3117) in hypertensive subjects. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 2004, 107(2), 167-173.
[] [PMID: 15040783]
Ambühl, P.M.; Tissot, A.C.; Fulurija, A.; Maurer, P.; Nussberger, J.; Sabat, R.; Nief, V.; Schellekens, C.; Sladko, K.; Roubicek, K.; Pfister, T.; Rettenbacher, M.; Volk, H.D.; Wagner, F.; Müller, P.; Jennings, G.T.; Bachmann, M.F. A vaccine for hypertension based on virus-like particles: Preclinical efficacy and phase I safety and immunogenicity. J. Hypertens., 2007, 25(1), 63-72.
[] [PMID: 17143175]
Tissot, A.C.; Maurer, P.; Nussberger, J.; Sabat, R.; Pfister, T.; Ignatenko, S.; Volk, H.D.; Stocker, H.; Müller, P.; Jennings, G.T.; Wagner, F.; Bachmann, M.F. Effect of immunisation against angiotensin II with CYT006-AngQb on ambulatory blood pressure: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase IIa study. Lancet, 2008, 371(9615), 821-827.
[] [PMID: 18328929]
MacDonald, G.J.; Louis, W.J.; Renzini, V.; Boyd, G.W.; Peart, W.S. Renal-clip hypertension in rabbits immunized against angiotensin II. Circ. Res., 1970, 27(2), 197-211.
[] [PMID: 4318416]
Michel, J.B.; Guettier, C.; Philippe, M.; Galen, F.X.; Corvol, P.; Ménard, J. Active immunization against renin in normotensive marmoset. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1987, 84(12), 4346-4350.
[] [PMID: 3108891]
Reade, R.; Michel, J.B.; Carelli, C.; Huang, H.; Baussant, T.; Corvol, P. [Immunisation of spontaneously hypertensive rats against angiotensin I]. Arch. Mal. Coeur Vaiss., 1989, 82(7), 1323-1328.
[PMID: 2510667]
Chen, X.; Qiu, Z.; Yang, S.; Ding, D.; Chen, F.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, M.; Lin, J.; Yu, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liao, Y. Effectiveness and safety of a therapeutic vaccine against angiotensin II receptor type 1 in hypertensive animals. Hypertension, 2013, 61(2), 408-416.
[] [PMID: 23184378]
Ou, X.; Guo, L.; Wu, J.; Mi, K.; Yin, N.; Zhang, G.; Li, H.; Sun, M. Construction, expression and immunogenicity of a novel anti-hypertension angiotensin II vaccine based on hepatitis A virus-like particle. Hum. Vaccin. Immunother., 2013, 9(6), 1191-1199.
[] [PMID: 23412424]
Gupta, A.K.; Poulter, N.R.; Dobson, J.; Eldridge, S.; Cappuccio, F.P.; Caulfield, M.; Collier, D.; Cruickshank, J.K.; Sever, P.S.; Feder, G. Ethnic differences in blood pressure response to first and second-line antihypertensive therapies in patients randomized in the ASCOT Trial. Am. J. Hypertens., 2010, 23(9), 1023-1030.
[] [PMID: 20725056]
Padmanabhan, S.; Graham, L.; Ferreri, N.R.; Graham, D.; McBride, M.; Dominiczak, A.F. Uromodulin, an emerging novel pathway for blood pressure regulation and hypertension. Hypertension, 2014, 64(5), 918-923.
[] [PMID: 25110906]
Köttgen, A.; Pattaro, C.; Böger, C.A.; Fuchsberger, C.; Olden, M.; Glazer, N.L.; Parsa, A.; Gao, X.; Yang, Q.; Smith, A.V.; O’Connell, J.R.; Li, M.; Schmidt, H.; Tanaka, T.; Isaacs, A.; Ketkar, S.; Hwang, S.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Dehghan, A.; Teumer, A.; Paré, G.; Atkinson, E.J.; Zeller, T.; Lohman, K.; Cornelis, M.C.; Probst-Hensch, N.M.; Kronenberg, F.; Tönjes, A.; Hayward, C.; Aspelund, T.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Launer, L.J.; Harris, T.B.; Rampersaud, E.; Mitchell, B.D.; Arking, D.E.; Boerwinkle, E.; Struchalin, M.; Cavalieri, M.; Singleton, A.; Giallauria, F.; Metter, J.; de Boer, I.H.; Haritunians, T.; Lumley, T.; Siscovick, D.; Psaty, B.M.; Zillikens, M.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Feitosa, M.; Province, M.; de Andrade, M.; Turner, S.T.; Schillert, A.; Ziegler, A.; Wild, P.S.; Schnabel, R.B.; Wilde, S.; Munzel, T.F.; Leak, T.S.; Illig, T.; Klopp, N.; Meisinger, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Koenig, W.; Zgaga, L.; Zemunik, T.; Kolcic, I.; Minelli, C.; Hu, F.B.; Johansson, Å.; Igl, W.; Zaboli, G.; Wild, S.H.; Wright, A.F.; Campbell, H.; Ellinghaus, D.; Schreiber, S.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Felix, J.F.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Imboden, M.; Nitsch, D.; Brandstätter, A.; Kollerits, B.; Kedenko, L.; Mägi, R.; Stumvoll, M.; Kovacs, P.; Boban, M.; Campbell, S.; Endlich, K.; Völzke, H.; Kroemer, H.K.; Nauck, M.; Völker, U.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Badola, S.; Parker, A.N.; Ridker, P.M.; Kardia, S.L.R.; Blankenberg, S.; Liu, Y.; Curhan, G.C.; Franke, A.; Rochat, T.; Paulweber, B.; Prokopenko, I.; Wang, W.; Gudnason, V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Coresh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Shlipak, M.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; Borecki, I.; Krämer, B.K.; Rudan, I.; Gyllensten, U.; Wilson, J.F.; Witteman, J.C.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Rettig, R.; Hastie, N.; Chasman, D.I.; Kao, W.H.; Heid, I.M.; Fox, C.S. New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease. Nat. Genet., 2010, 42(5), 376-384.
[] [PMID: 20383146]
Arendse, L.B.; Danser, A.H.J.; Poglitsch, M.; Touyz, R.M.; Burnett, J.C., Jr; Llorens-Cortes, C.; Ehlers, M.R.; Sturrock, E.D. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Targeting the Renin-Angiotensin System and Associated Peptides in Hypertension and Heart Failure. Pharmacol. Rev., 2019, 71(4), 539-570.
[] [PMID: 31537750]
Mullick, A.E.; Yeh, S.T.; Graham, M.J.; Engelhardt, J.A.; Prakash, T.P.; Crooke, R.M. Blood Pressure Lowering and Safety Improvements With Liver Angiotensinogen Inhibition in Models of Hypertension and Kidney Injury. Hypertension, 2017, 70(3), 566-576.
[] [PMID: 28716988]
Padmanabhan, S.; Tran, T.Q.B.; Dominiczak, A.F. Artificial intelligence in hypertension: Seeing through a glass darkly. Circ. Res., 2021, 128(7), 1100-1118.
[] [PMID: 33793339]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy