Recent evidence shows the cardiometabolic effects of estrogen administration in postmenopausal women. Women have a cardiometabolic advantage during their reproductive years, which is lost at menopause due to declining estradiol (E2). E2, also known as 17-beta-estradiol, has diverse effects in its target tissues, including the cardiovascular (CV) system, through genomic and non-genomic signaling. Metabolic changes characteristic of menopause include a worsening lipid profile, changes in body fat distribution, epicardial and pericardial fat deposition, increased susceptibility to weight gain, and increased blood pressure, resulting in an increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. E2 mediates its cardioprotective actions by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and vasodilation, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, and modulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In this review, we assess whether it is prudent to develop an approach to managing postmenopausal women based on modifying the patient's CV risk that includes human-identical hormone replacement therapy (HRT), modulation of RAAS, and stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Further research is needed to assess the safety and benefit of HRT to reduce cardiometabolic risk.
Keywords: Menopause, cardiometabolic risk factor, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen replacement therapy, mitochondria, renin-angiotensin system.