Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used worldwide for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.
Objective: The article highlights the development of zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) methods to quantify three NSAIDs as active ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations simultaneously.
Methods: For NSAIDs analysis, two homemade ZIC-HILIC stationary phases were carried out by adding sulfobetaine monomers to polystyrene-divinylbenzene particles. The methods were developed by examining the effect of HILIC mode parameters like the kind of organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile), acetonitrile content, pH and concentration of the acetate buffer in the eluent.
Results: The experimental data exhibit the predominant mechanism of NSAIDs with two ZICHILIC stationary phases. The different chain lengths in the two ZIC-HILIC stationary phases are employed to investigate NSAIDs retention behaviour. The strategies were evaluated for their specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0, 0.05-17.5 and 0.12-13.5 μg ml-1, LOD 0.005. 0.015 and 0.046 μg ml-1 and LOQ 0.015, 0.045 and 0.139 μg ml-1 for nimesulide, tenoxicam and diclofenac, respectively.
Conclusion: They represent interactions with three NSAIDs, ZIC-HILIC columns, and mobile phase in a mixed-mode of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. In contrast to the ZICHILIC- 1 stationary phase with a shorter chain length, the ZIC-HILIC-4 stationary phase with a longer chain length exhibited a longer retention time, lower detection and limit of quantitation for three NSAIDs.The verification findings demonstrate the suitability of the proposed ZIC-HILIC methods for quantifying NSAIDs in pharmaceutical formulations.