Background: Although coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) seems to be milder in children than in adults, children may exhibit severe multisystemic involvement, supported by growing evidence of this incidence in neonates. This case report aimed to demonstrate an inflammatory response syndrome in a full-term neonate born from a 35-old-year woman infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Case Presentation: A full-term neonate girl with uneventful perinatal history was admitted with mild tachypnea at the first hour of birth and gradually worsened, resulting in subsequent ventilator support on the second day. The nasal SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was positive in several cessations from the time of admission until the tenth day. She revealed cardiomegaly, a diffuse opacification of lungs in the chest radiograph, both side ventricular hypertrophy, valvular regurgitation, and severe pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography. She underwent treatment with surfactant, antibiotics, paracetamol, inotropes, and sildenafil, with beneficial effects. In the lack of a positive fluid culture, she developed necrotizing enterocolitis, transaminitis, and a generalized rash on day six. Furthermore, her mild brain edema that occurred on the second day developed into hydrocephaly. The patient was considered MIS-N and successfully treated with methylprednisolone pulse and intravenous immunoglobulin. She was discharged after 29 days and followed for eight months with persistent mild hydrocephalous and possible evidence of cerebral palsy.
Conclusion: We conclude that maternal exposure to COVID-19 may potentially be associated with multisystem inflammation in the early neonatal period. However, this condition is relatively rare. Immunomodulatory agents may be beneficial in this condition.