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CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5273
ISSN (Online): 1996-3181

Research Article

In Schizophrenia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome- and Fibromyalgia-Like Symptoms are Driven by Breakdown of the Paracellular Pathway with Increased Zonulin and Immune Activation-Associated Neurotoxicity

Author(s): Michael Maes*, Laura Andrés-Rodríguez, Aristo Vojdani, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Decio S. Barbosa and Buranee Kanchanatawan

Volume 22, Issue 2, 2023

Published on: 22 August, 2022

Page: [215 - 225] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1871527321666220806100600

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: A meaningful part of schizophrenia patients suffer from physiosomatic symptoms (formerly named psychosomatic), which are reminiscent of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (FF) and are associated with signs of immune activation and increased levels of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs).

Aims: The study aims to examine whether FF symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with the breakdown of the paracellular pathway, zonulin, lowered natural IgM responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs); and whether FF symptoms belong to the behavioral-cognitive-physical-psychosocial- (BCPS)-worsening index consisting of indices of a general cognitive decline (G-CoDe), symptomatome of schizophrenia, and quality of life (QoL)-phenomenome.

Methods: FF symptoms were assessed using the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Rating scale in 80 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls and serum cytokines/chemokines, IgA levels to TRYCATs, IgM to OSEs, zonulin and transcellular/paracellular (TRANS/PARA) molecules were assayed using ELISA methods.

Results: A large part (42.3%) of the variance in the total FF score was explained by the regression on the PARA/TRANS ratio, pro-inflammatory cytokines, IgM to zonulin, IgA to TRYCATs (all positively), and IgM to OSEs (inversely). There were highly significant correlations between the total FF score and G-CoDe, symtopmatome, QoL phenomenome, and BCPS-worsening score. FF symptoms belong to a common core shared by G-CoDe, symtopmatome, and QoL phenomenome.

Conclusion: The physio-somatic symptoms of schizophrenia are driven by various pathways, including increased zonulin, breakdown of the paracellular tight-junctions pathway, immune activation with induction of the TRYCAT pathway, and consequent neurotoxicity. It is concluded that FF symptoms are part of the phenome of schizophrenia and BCPS-worsening as well.

Keywords: Chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, oxidative stress, neuro-immune, inflammation, bacterial translocation.


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